His Death Certificate states his father was Charley Walden b. VA his mother was Mary South b. Pike County MO.
1910 census states Lucy T Taylor was his second wife as he was her second husband. They were married 8 years with no children.
Ancestry has a database of City Directories. For the Sedalia City Directories: 1903 a CS Walden is listed under heading Billards House at 207 W Main St. 1903 a Charles S Walden (c) Billiards 207 W. Main residence117 E Morgan
1904 a Chas S Waldren Dr (c)asst editor Sedalia Times 109 E Main r 117 E Morgan 1904 under Phys-Surg heading CS Walden 109 E Main
1908 under Phys-Surg heading CS Walden (c) 109 1/2 E Main.
1927 Lucy T Walden (widow CS) 301 E Morgan. This is the address she was living when signed Charles's death certificate.
The Sedalia Newspapers are on the Library of Congress's website, Chronicling America. 285 results for the name Walden. Looked at a few... There is a 1886 news article referring to Dr Walden.
A 1904 news item about Mrs. CS Walden's 42nd Birthday.
A July 11, 1903 Obit in the Sedalia Weekly for Dr CS Walden's daughter, Miss Annie Mae Walden d. July 5th. Lived in Kansas City but came to father and step-mother's house 7 weeks prior, when became sick. Also attended by last surviving sister, Mrs Dora Buckner of Chicago IL. Annie was born July 2nd 1877 in Bowling Green, Pike County MO. Also went to public schools in Bowling Green and Sedalia. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/
Also it seems he was a member of the United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten (UBF&SMT), a secret benevolent society for African Americans.
Newspapers.com has a 1903 newspaper article about a Dr. Walden attending a Grand Session of the U.B.F.& S.M.T in Macon City (prob MO in Macon County). He and a Mrs. Vina Williams lobbied and got the next Grand Session in Sedalia.
Census for 1900 IL Cook County Chicago is a Dora Walden age 20 b. June 1879, race Black is a Step-daughter in the household a Joseph and Sallie Pierson.
Census for 1910 IL Cook County Chicago is a Dora Buckner b. abt 1882 age 28 married once for 6 years, race Black and listed as Step-daughter in the household of a Joseph and Sally Pearson. (Mother) Sally, married twice, 18 yrs to Joseph as I read the census.
1910-18= 1892, so looks like Charles and Sallie/Sally Walden divorced before 1892.
That is all I can find and out of time...hope this helps. There maybe more newspaper articles with information. Check to see of any membership records survive of the UBF&SMT. Also look at microfilms of local churches of the area he lived. A LDS Family History center may have them. Their catalog is online at FamilySearch.org.