Stryker-Rodda's book was taken from a non-contemporaneous handwritten militia listing in a fat ledger held by the Archives in Trenton.Its mode of organization is hard to discern, as there are no pointers to "this begins the company of Capt. so-and-so" -- Stryker-Rodda did well to make as much sense of it as he did.
I see how you have worked out your mental picture of the inter-relationships between Militia, State Troops and Continentals.
When I explain the organizational mode of the 3 tiers, I use this template, which has the advantage of pointing to where records might be found.
1) The Continental Regiments.Authorized, supplied and paid for (sometimes) by the Continental Congress.The major campaigners during the War, commanded by George Washington.Were frequently reorganized and could be deployed anywhere in the Colonies.A few (such as the MD and VA Rifle Regiment) originated as consolidated Militia companies, but continued as Continental Troops until disbanded or consolidated with other Continental Regiments.Every Continental Regiment officer was superior in rank to any officer with rank of the same name in State or Militia bodies.
2) State Troops.Each State Regiment was authorized andwas supposed to be supplied and paid by the State.They were formed for the purpose of defense within the State.Some were deployed on an emergency basis to assist Continental campaigns, notably in NY and SC; these returned to their original status to the extent they were not largely captured, after the campaign.A very few were seconded to the Continentals for an extended period during the War.
3) County Militia.Founded and funded by each County, for defense within the County, usually under authority of State legislation which defined numbers of officers.Each "County Lieutenant" was to be approved/Commissioned by Governor and/or Legislature.This officer usually had rank of Colonel or Lt. Col.Unlike the State Troops and Continentals, the Militia was not a standing army, but consisted of all free white able-bodied males aged roughly 16-60 (varied by time and place) residing in the County.Regular drills were held, and lists made at this time are useful -- but they do not reflect active duty.Most militia men never saw active duty, which might include patrolling, guarding prisoners or escorting supplies bound elsewhere.On very rare emergency occasions Militiamen were sent to assist a Continental effort, but would return home to their former status if not killed or captured.Some States drafted some parts of County Militia into the Continentals; at this point these men became part of their Continental Regiment until discharged [one of my ancestors drafted into the 1st NY Continental served 5 years including captivity in Quebec, not counting about 9 months between release from Quebec and the time he was formally exchanged and permitted to return to active duty in the 1st NY].
So some records of militiamen and State Troops appear in the National Archives microfilm of the Continental Rolls because they were temporarily involved in a Continental campaign, such as at Fort Washington.But by and large, County records [many now in State Archives] are the principal repositories for militia records, State records for State Troops, and the National Archives for the Continentals.