Alsace-Lorraine - - - Document form: Special Cards and stamps on ID cards; Year established: 1918, Status: discontinued; Categories and groups: In December 1918 France imposed a four-part ID card system on Alsace -Lorraine in an effort to distinguish between (A"pure blooded" Alsatians and Lorraines, from (B) those of mixed ancestry,(C) a population identified as "boches" (recent German immigrants and persons considered culturally German), and (D) foreigners. A total of 59% were considered to be "pure-blooded" receiving Carte A enabling them to travel freely, register to vote and exchange currency. Persons of mixed ancestry (10%), persons deemed to be Germans (28%), and foreigners received Cards B, C and D with restricted rights. Native-born Alsatian Protestants were especially persecuted. Comments: After 47 years of German rule following the 1871 Franco-Prussian War, Alsace and Lorriane were reincorporated into France. Subsequent reintegration between 1918 and 1920 included the flight and expulsion of more than 110,000 persons from Alsace and 100,000 from Lorraine. From 1940 to 1945 Nazi Germany reannexed Alsace-Lorraine.
France (WWII) - - - Name and Document form: "JUIF" added to ID cards; Dates established: October 1940 in German-occupied Northern France; December 1942 in Vichy France in the South; Status: discontinued in 1944. Categories and groups: French citizens and foreigners of Jewish ancestry. Comments: As an additional source of identification beginning in June 1942, Jews over 6 years of age were required to wear the Yellow Star of David badges ( l'étoile jaune ) on their outer clothing. The Yellow Star badges were not introduced in Vichy France. Approximately 90,000 out of 350,000 Jews in France were deported to Death camps. Source: Susan Zuccotti, The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews, Basic Books, 1993, p. 54, 61, 81, 90.