?These, quite simply, are bronze star devices, 3/16” in diameter, to be worn on the suspension and service ribbon of the appropriate campaign or service medal - in this case, the EAME Theater Medal - to denote participation in certain officially-designated campaigns. Period. Often called "battle stars" they actually have nothing at all to do with combat. A silver-colored metal star of the same size may be worn to represent five bronze.
Individual campaign participation credits originated during World War I, except that bronze clasps, each bearing the name of an officially-designated campaign, were authorized to be attached to the suspension ribbon of the World War I Victory Medal. A bronze service star was worn on the service ribbon to represent each clasp to which an individual was entitled.
The 3/16" silver star devices at that time represented individual citations for "gallantry in action" - the original Silver Star decoration (beginning in 1933, individuals could apply for the newly-created Silver Star decoration on the basis of these citation certificates).
The cites alongside each campaign credit (example, "GO 30 WD AGO 1945") on your Grandfather’s separation document are War Department General Orders which set forth the geographical limits of the officially-prescribed areas of operations and time frames established for those campaigns indicated.
Example: the time frame for the Rhineland Campaign was 15 September 1944 - 21 March 1945, both dates inclusive. ANYONE serving in ANY capacity ANYWHERE within the officially-prescibed area of operations and time frame was entitled to wear a bronze 3/16" service star device on the ribbon of the EAME Theater Medal for that campaign.
The Ardennes-Alsace Campaign - commonly called the Battle of the Bulge - extended from 16 December 1944 through 25 January 1945, both dates inclusive, and overlapped the prescribed area of operations of the Rhineland Campaign. Again, ANYONE serving in ANY capacity ANYWHERE within the prescribed area of operations and time frame was entitled to a star to denote participation in that particular campaign.
I once knew a guy assigned to a support outfit situated just outside the limits of the Ardennes-Alsace area of operations. An admitted yardbird - an "operator" - he was always on KP and a member of the garbage detail almost daily. There wasn’t so much as a squad of German soldiers within a fifty-mile radius.
Thegarbage dump was about a quarter mile or so inside the area of operations, so that when the order came down announcing campaign eligibility, this guy easily qualified. When the war ended, the five points for the additional campaign credi placed him well ahead of many others when it came time to rotate home.
There was no minimum time requirement. Technically, ANYONE serving in ANY capacity ANYWHERE within the prescribed area of operations and time frame, from one minute past midnight of the first day to midnight of the last day, was entitled to the credit.
IF YOU'RE THINKING OF CREATING A SHADOWBOX DISPLAY OF HIS AWARDS, GET BACK WITH ME BEFORE YOU START. THOSE LISTED ON HIS DISCHARGE ARE ONLY WHAT HE WAS ENTITLED TO ON THE DATE OF HIS RELEASE FROM ACTIVE DUTY. HE MAY WELL BE ENTITLED TO OTHERS THAT WERE AUTHORIZED OR APPROVED SUBSEQUENT TO HIS RELEASE.