The battalion was constituted and first organized as 31st Infantry Antitank Battalion (Light) (Towed) in 1941. Equipped with 3-inch antitank guns mounted on four-wheel trailer platforms. Redesignated 631st Tank Destroyer Battalion about February 1942 and reorganized and re-equipped with 76-millimeter self-propelled antitank guns a short while later.
Departed New York City 16 July and arrived in England 5 Aug 1944. Landed in France 31 August 1944. Campaign credits: Northern France, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace and Central Europe. Arrived in the United States 15 December 1945 and inactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey the following day. Disbanded 1952.