Lt. Col. Joseph P. Lushene's 16th Field Artillery Observation Battalion was part of Army VIII Corps Artillery. The observation battalion or OP was a source of intelligence for long range artillery fire. This battalion was always positioned as far forward as possible. Locating enemy artillery positions both by 'flash'(visual observation) as enemy guns fired and simultaneously 'sound' determining gun locations and troop movements, by use of powerful microphones. During the Battle of the Bulge, the 16th OP had six forward observation posts. Some did not have time to withdraw and were overrun and killed or captured by the German infantry assault.