59th Observation Group activated 1 September 1941 at Newark, New Jersey and assigned to First Air Force. Engaged in patrol activity along Atlantic Seaboard. Employed, at various times BC-1A, L-59, O-46, O-47, O-49 and O-52 aircraft. Inactivated 18 October 1942. Reactivated 1 March 1943 at Fort Myers, Florida and assigned to Third Air Force. Redesignated 59th Reconnaissance Group April 1943 at Thomasville Army Air Field, Georgia. Redesignated 59th Fighter Group Aug 1943 at Thomasville. Trained pilots using P-39 aircraft with part of the group converting to P-40's in April 1944. SQUADRONS: 34th (formerly 126th), 447th, 488th (formerly 9th), 489th (formerly 104th) and 490th (formerly 119th). Disbanded 1 May 1944 at Thomasville. Campaign credits: American Theater Campaign Streamer with one bronze service star (for antisubmarine operations), World War II Victory Streamer.
NOTE: The designations of the subordinate squadrons changed with the group's redesignation, thus: 126th Observation Squadron became 34th Reconnaissance Squadron and later 34th Fighter Squadron.