According to one researcher in Santo Domingo, the OBENs went from Curacao to Haiti then to Santo Domingo.Later, they went to Puerto Rico.
There was an incident in St. Eustacius after the American Revolution wherein a British General took revenge against the people who lived there, who had assisted the United States to obtain supplies during the war by running the embargo to the Americans' benefit.
Later, there were slave revolts in Haiti.Some French left for Cuba, so today there are surnames such as Betancourt in Cuba.They settled around Oriente province nad planted coffee and fruit, being quite succesful at this agriculture there.They influenced the music of Cuba as well as the culture in general.They filled a void in Santiago de Cuba, where the capital of Cuba had once been, as when the capital moved to Havana there were many residents who also left for Havana.Beny More and Olga Guillot are two famous mulatto singers with French surnames.
There were other migrations for other reasons, of course.In Santo Domingo, there was not persecution of Jews but, according to a posting I read by one of their descendants, some Jews felt aprehensive when Masons were persecuted.Masons were "scapegoats" for some after Spain lost the war and perhaps some of that sentiment, unfortunately, was present in Santo Domingo for a time, of course probably in the case of a few people.It was enough to make some Jews leave there.
Ponce is a city in Puerto Rico in which Jews and crypto-Jews felt comfortable enough that the Sabbath was kept throughout the city. Language and culture there indicate strong Sephardic influence.
There was a law in the 1820's (1821?) which encouraged Eastern Europeans to migrate to Puerto Rico.Critics state that it was an attempt by Spain to "lighten the complexion" of Puerto Rico, where Spaniards and descendants of Africans had intermarried almost from the beginning, as there had been many free Africans due to the availability of mountainous terrain away from the coast.Free Africans and free Spaniards had produced a mixed population.Many Eastern Europeans and French married into Spanish and mixed families and surnames were changed, (Wagner became Guagoner, for example).
The Eastern European immigrants, many of them polyglots, were necessary to the maritime economy so baptism was a mere formality in that officially Catholic country.They were very poor and those who farmed were sharecroppers who did not even have flat land.They went up the mountains and planted coffee, some of the best in the world.
As the United States took over Puerto Rico when it became part of the spoils of he Spanish American War, its economy became sugar-based as the United States already had cheap coffee from Brazil.Times were difficult and some Puerto Ricans left for Cuba for purely economic reasons, never forgetting Puerto Rico and quite nostalgic about "Borinquen".In my family, we still spoke with the Ponce "jargon" including Ladino phrases, ate Puerto Rican foods and never forgot the other islands.