Here’s some more informal research :I typed both Ludovina and Ludovino in google.com and found lots of sites.The vast majority was in Portuguese.A couple in English and one or two in Spanish.When I typed Ludobino, I got two sites in Spanish but the name was Francisco Ludobino de Sousa Freitas, a clearly Portuguese name.
Ludovine gave me lots of French sites (Ludovin, the male form, as well).One of them had this to say: Origine : Germanique, de hold, gloire, et wig, combat. Le prénom Ludovine est très rare et sa tendance est en forte baisse sur l'année 2000.
Ludubino didn’t hit anything.
My guess is that your ancestors were either Portuguese or living very close to Portugal where that name would have been common, perhaps in Galicia or certain areas of Castilla-Leon next to Portugal.The correct spelling seems to be either Ludovino or Ludobino.In Spanish, there would not be much (if at all) difference between the pronunciation of the two spellings.