In 1850 a Hugh Chambers was living with Elisha and Barbara. He was 74 and also from Virginia. I think that he was related in some way to Elisha White. He may have been his step-father. I found a marriage listing for Hugh Chambers to Enice White in 1801 in Washington Co, VA. In 1810 and 1830 Hugh Chambers was living in Pulaski Co, KY. He's probably there as well in 1820 but I didn't find the listing. Looking at Pulaski Co, KY I found the following marriage record that is a good match for your Elisha and Barbary White.
Kentucky Marriages, 1802-1850 Spouse 1: Baugh, Barbara Spouse 2: White, Elisha Marriage Date: 2 Jan 1817 Marriage Location: Kentucky, Pulaski County
Barbara's parents may be Henry Baugh and Margaret Phillips who were married in Montgomery Co, VA, and later lived in Wythe Co, VA and Pulaski Co, KY.