The quoted 1890 Veterans Schedule, Santiam, Linn County, OR
House #93, family 93
Augustus Fellows, Private, Company M, 1st California Cavalry, enlisted May 26, 1863, Discharged May 26, 1886.
Backing up the other poster's finding, for once, but with more substantial information:
The Department of Veteran Affairs has a nationwide gravestone locator for veterans:http://gravelocator.cem.va.gov/j2ee/servlet/NGL_v1http://gravelocator.cem.va.gov/j2ee/servlet/NGL_v1
For August Fellows:Private, "M 1st Cal Cav", date of death 10/31/1905, buried site 17076, Arlington National Cemetery.C/O Director, Arlington, VA, 703-607-8000.
So, both the 1890 Veterans Schedule AND the Grave locator match in the information on the unit within which he served.Arlington records shows this person died 10/31/1905, perhaps the Arlington National Cemetery can identify further information from their records, contact the above address.
As to the picture you have:Augustus was in the 1st Regiment, California Cavalry.There was a Thomas Fellows in the 6th Regiment, Company A, Private.There was a William H.H. Fellows, 7th Regiment, 2 Lieut.I couldn't find either in the 1890 Veterans Census.I "quickly" looked for both in CA in 1860, without success.I also tried to research the company taking the picture you have without success.
--For future elimination
Augustus W Fellows, born about 1842 in Michigan, enlisted Co. F, Michigan 26th Infantry Regiment on 26 Aug. 1864, Mustered out 4 June 1865.Married to Mary Ann Pate in 1888, she died May 10, 1947 in Michigan. (He was also listed in the 1890 schedule as "Agustus"
-- I can only find two August* Fellows serving in the war, via several sites, to include: http://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/soldiers.cfmhttp://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/soldiers.cfm
---Augustas and family---
1860 Census for Cottonwood, Yolo Co, CA, enumerated July 31.
Saml Fellows, 41, Ohio, farmer/merchant
Augustus Fellows, 18, born in Ohio,
Rufus A, 20, OH, farmer
--This connects him in California to the unit in which he enlisted.
--born Ohio, between July 31, 1841, and July 30, 1842.
--The 1850 has Augustus and Rufus in Missouri living in the household of a Thompson Wodell, 26.So, it doesn't appear they were in a close family bond after birth.
I ran Rufus to see if he was in Oregon, looking for the reason Augustus was there.It doesn't seem to be the reason.
---1880- Watson Gulch & Jerusalem, Shasta Co, CA.
R.A. Fellows, 40, Farmer, born Ohio to both parents born Ohio
Sarah E, 40, born Kentucky
Elazine? dau, age 2
Samuel A, 3/12, Census enumerated 10 June, so born about March.
Roden, Francis, 17, step-dau; Walter 15, step-son; Mary A 12, S-dau; Alice 5, S-dau.The Roden children were in the 1870 census with parents Allen (Indiana) and Elizabeth (Kentucky).It appears the Roden children were adopted via Aunt Sarah.
---1900 Census for Etna, Siskiyou Co, CA
Rufus A, born Mar 1840, now shown as born in Wisconsin to both parents born in Ohio
Sarah E, 1838.shown as married 40 years.
--The 1910 Census for Stony Ford, Colusa Co, CA
Rufus A, 70, born Ohio, third marriage
Sarah E, 70, Kentucky, second marriage
Rufus A, 28, S, born in CA.
--Rufus isn't found in the 1920.
I checked for the 13 others in the 1890 Census with Augustus, two were in other National Cemeteries, the others unknown.
Augustus "should" have been found in the 1900 census if he was alive; but who knows where he was, or how he came to be buried at Arlington.But, Arlington is your next lead