There appeared to be some name changing during the Civil War. I know if you look at the census records for 1860 all of the Carroll and Floyd County, VA Aldermans spelled their "Alderman" and in the 1870 Census they spelled their name "Alterman" and in 1880 they went back to "Alderman". Jame Paul might have changed his name back to Osterman (one variation of the the original Jacob Alderman's last name and appears to be the spelling on his land deed).
One possible explanation to all the name changing was that at least some (especially those who lived in the Burkes Fork area) were members of the Church of the Brethren. The Church of the Brethren like the Quakers was anti-war in their belief at the time of the Civil War.A person could opt out of fighting by paying $500.00 a large sum at the time.