Jess, In seeking the origins of Arculus I looked far and wide. I recall finding the word Arklas meant a plough in either Lithuanian or Latvian ~ this could be the origin of your Polish Arkles. I have found several of my Arculus ancestors misspelt Arkilles. Generally I would feel Arkles, although only one letter short of Arkless, sounds so different when you say it that I doubt there is much of a link... except those inevitable spelling errors from time to time. Regards, Julian Arculus.