How did you manage to research your family line back to the 17th century?
My family is also descended from a Bartoš, Richard from near Stity, Czechoslovakia. He also called himself Bohemian or Moravian. He is from a family of eight boys and one girl. However, Richard came to the US in the early 20th century (around the time of WWI) and his brother, Joseph, followed slightly later. Both settled in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. If there is a connection to your family, it must be earlier than that generation.
I would sure love to know how to find records reaching back so far (that are in English! I can't read a word of Czech.)