You say you have as your earliest known Campbell ancestor an Archibald Campbell b. ca. 1700 married to a Mary Cameron.How well documented--with primary or good secondary sources--is this.Where did this Archibald Campbell and Mary Cameron live, particularly as married adults?Did they emigrate to Pennsylvania or Virginia, and if so, about when?Do you know if either of them were actually born in Scotland, or in Ireland?A line of Campbells connected to the baronets of Auchinbreck purchased forfeited lands in Ulster in 1612 and three generations some of the descendants of this line emigrated to the U.S. in 1720/1.Archibald is a name that occurs in this line.It also occurs in lines related to the Earls of Cawdor.Each major "house" of Campbells, such as Argyll, Breadalbane, Loudon, Cawdor, has cadet houses--that is houses descended from younger sons of a given Earl or Baron.All of the Campbells, millions, are essentially "related to the Dukes of Argyll," and earlier Earls and Lords of Lochawe, etc. but darned few are actually closely related, especially on this side of the Atlantic.
Most of the Campbells who came to what is now the U.S. in the early 1700's and settled in Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia are most closely related to the baronets and Barons of Auchinbreck.A number of Campbells who settled in Cumberland Co., North Carolina between about 1746 and 1752 were out of the Campbells of Glenorchy/Glenorchie.
One line only is directly descended from apparently the 1st Duke of Argyll and it's a small line.The oldest son of the Duke was named John and was born in 1700 or within a year or so.He married Elizabeth Walker, oldest daughter of John Walker of the Walkers of Wigtown, Ayshire, Scotland and Katherine Rutherford.They were married in Ireland.John Campbell had apparently demonstrated too fervent support of Jacobites and such to his father and was literally sent away in disgrace. He was living at or near Kirnan in Ulster when he married Miss Walker in 1723/4.They had 9 children and planned to emigrate to Virginia.He died at sea and his widow and children settled in Augusta County, near Staunton, Virginia. The children who lived long enough to be recorded were: (1)Esther md. Alexander McKinney; (2)Mary md. David Chambers; (3) Rachel md. Thomas Dobbins; (4)Elizabeth d. very young; (5)Jane md. Alexander McPheeters; (6) John Walker Campbell md. Martha Spears and HAD NO CHILDREN--but adopted the oldest son of his younger brother, Robert Campbell;(7) Elizabeth Campbell md. James Wallace and (8) Robert Campbell b. 1743 md. Rebecca Wallace had son John Poage Campbell b. in 1767 in Augusta County, VA.Robert had 350 acres of land in "Beverly Manor."in 1780, John Walker Campbell, his wife, nephew and others of this family moved to Mason County, Kentucky.Robert is believed to have had other children but only the one son, John Poage Campbell, has been well documented at present.
John Campbell, "rightful Duke of Argyll," the husband of Martha Spears was buried on what was then family property between Maysville and Fleming in Kentucky.John Poage Campbell md. (1)Miss Crawford, (2) Miss Poage of Kentucky (a cousin) and (3) Isabella McDowell, daughter of James McDowell of Lexington, Rockbridge Co., VA.John Poage Campbell b. 1767, died 14 November, 1814 and left 9 children.
In the 1850's the English (British) Parliament passed a special act laying aside monies "for the benefit of the heirs of John Walker Campbell, rightful Duke of Argyll" in exchange for this family giving up the title and lands in the United Kingdom.This was all written about by the late 1800's and compiled into books at that time.Martha Orchard Malcott of Bloomington, Indiana did much of the compilation.This was eventually published in a book _John Walker of Wigtown, Scotland_ by Emma S. White, in 1902.It was transcribed/scanned and put on line by a group called PENJACC of Kingsport, TN a few years ago.
The Camerons were generally Jacobites in the early 1700's. Most of the Campbells were NOT Jacobites.The most notable Jacobite Campbells, however, were the Campbells of Auchinbreck and Glenorchie.The Auchinbreck line did have some Cameron marriages, but I didn't find yours in the direct line.The youngest daughter of Sir James Campbell, 3rd Baron Auchinbreck and his 1st wife, Janet McLeod (daughter of Norman McLeod of Dunvegan), Ann Campbell, married Donald Cameron.The youngest child of the 3rd Baron and his 3rd wife, Margaret Campbell (of the Campbells of Carradale) was named Cameron Campbell.Apparently Margaret's family also had Cameron connections.
The 3rd Baron of Auchinbreck was one of the "three notorious lords," who invited Bonnie Prince Charlie to Scotland for the 2nd attempt of the main line of Stuarts to regain their throne.When the Prince's forces lost at Culloden, in 1745 the Baron was imprisoned by his distant cousin, the Duke of Argyll at the castle at Dunbarton, for the rest of his life.He died 7 years later in Dunbarton in 1752, at the age of nearly 90.A large part of his estates were also forfeited and taken back into the hands of Argyll.This included the then manor house and lands of Inveraray, which had been part of the Auchinbreck holdings since 1420.The Duke then razed the manor house and deported most of the villagers and rebuilt the village in a different location.The current principal home of the Dukes of Argyll, Inveraray Castle is built on the site of the former manor of the Barons of Auchinbreck.
The 3rd Baron was himself a grandson of a Lindsay Earl of Balcarres, through his mother Henriette Lindsay, daughter of the 1st Earl of Balcarres.The 3rd Baron's 2nd wife was Lady Susan Campbell, a daughter of the then Earl of Cawdor.Both the 3rd Baron and his 2nd wife were direct descendants of Sir John Campbell (a younger son of the 2nd Earl of Argyll) and Muriel Calder/Cawdor, the "heiress of Cawdor."This is the formation of the Campbell Earls of Cawdor.Margaret Campbell, oldest daughter of the "Tutor of Cawdor" (seneschal, steward, guardian of the minor heir to the Earl) married Sir Archibald Campbell of Knockmellie the nephew of the 1st Baron.When his older brother died with no heirs, Archibald Campbell of Knockmellie became 2nd Baron of Auchinbreck.Archibald's oldest son, James, the 3rd Baron, was born about 1660-maybe even a year or two earlier.The third Baron had at least 6 children, 3 daughters and 3 sons, who all emigrated and settled in Virginia, and who have numerous descendants.He had NO sons named Archibald, however.Nevertheless, we don't know who all the children of Archibald Campbell of Knockmellie were, and it is quite likely he had more than one child.It is very possible he had a younger son named Archibald, born after 1660.That Archibald, in turn, could have had a son named Archibald b. about 1700.
Backing up a little, before the Campbells became Earls of Argyll, they were "Lords of Lochawe" and then Lords Campbell (essentially Barons).Duncan, Lord Campbell, b. ca. 1390 (named Lord Campbell in 1414) d. 1452 was married to Marjory, Stewart, a daughter of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and Regent of Scotland.Their first son, Gillespie Gillespie became the next Lord Campbell and his first-born son, Colin became 1st Earl of Argyll in 1457. Duncan, Lord Campbell 1390-1452, had as his 2nd son, Colin Campbell who was the ancestor of the Campbells of Glenorchie/Glenorchy, Glenlyon, Breadalbane and Barcaldine.Duncan's 4th son, Duncan "Jr." became the first Lord of Auchinbreck. Duncan's 5th son was named Archibald and he became Laird of Otter.Duncan himself was one of 9 sons of his parents, many of whom began other lesser known branches of the Campbells. Just this little bit of Campbell history, however, should give you some idea of the overall size of the Campbell Clan.
One mistake that many "family historians" made in the late 1800's, though was that when they found records in Virginia that indicated some of the Virginia Campbells came originally from Inveraray in the early 1700's, assumed that they were of the main house of Argyll--not realizing that between 1420-1745 Inveraray belonged to the Campbells of Auchinbreck.It would take a long time to describe the amount of confusion and embarrassment that mistaken assumption has caused since then.So, be very careful to get as much documentation from records written at the time people lived, or by their children--if they could be relied upon to interview their parents and grandparents and make accurate notes.
Remember also, only the parents of children knew exactly where children were born, and don't make the mistake of assuming that when someone said he "came from this county or that in some state" to settle in another that he was born there.That simply might have been the last place he left to arrive where he lived when he was questioned.Another classic case of just such a mistaken assumption is among the descendants of many Irish families who all think their ancestors all came from "County Cork."Actually, that was where most boarded the boats and when they arrived, the registrars put down that they had arrived on a ship from County Cork.Actually, they were from almost any of the counties in Ireland before they boarded the boats in Cork.
Good luck in sorting out your Campbell line, but I doubt if you will ultimately find that it is a close relation to the "current" Duke of Argyll.
Cecilia L. Fabos-Becker, San Jose, CA
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