The family referenced above might serve as a test case for the practice of fully implementing all available resources to achieve common genealogical objectives.In the Old Burial Ground in Newport lies the body of Ninian Chaloner.He left notable descendants,including the first naval surgeon in American history whose heroism in the aftermath of the HMS Margarettaattack in 1775 precedes the official birth of the US Navy! Above Ninian's grave is a tombstone bearing his coat of arms. While I believe that the arms have been included in some of the American Armorials,there is no clear lineage backward from Ninian. It is sadly well established that there were in Early America the stirrings of mercenary peddling of ancestry by the earlier versions of some of the folks who now do it via mass mailings and internet promotions.Some arms have been acquired by those who have just been told by a promoter that "their family coat of arms" is at hand. Still and all,I believe that the systematic reexamination of Colonial Heraldry will yield up more examples of valid lineages. Lets use all of our tools:family records,library and museum document collections,DNA,heraldry,and good detective work.