This is a real mixed bag. There is an exception to every rule. There are whole libraries filled this kind of information but you have to know how to research it.
I like to read their the slave narratives of interviews by the WPA in the 1930's. They talked to elderly ex-slaves from all over the country and some stories are funny, some tragic, and some brutal.
But one thing is certain you will never believe any crap you read or see on tv again.
There is an African-American genealogist that has investigated countless African families mostly in Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina back to the early 1700's.
In a huge number of cases the father is black and the mother is white. Mst tof the slaves brought over were male and they had to marry someone, leagally or illegally.
In early Virginia slavery was not defined by race, so you had white (mostly Irish) and Indian slaves. A great many Irish women in slavery or as indentured servants married african slaves. And Virginia was called the mother of all states.
I have read some in Frederick Law Olmstead's books written in the 1850's. He was a lanscape architect and agricultural expert who made three trips through the south writing articles for months at a time. They were collected into three rare out of date books. But a condensation of these three books was published on the outbreak of the Civil War and had been reprinted several times. Olstead designed Cantral Park in New York and most of the other big cities.
He found that slavery was more humane when the owner ran the olantation. But if you had very rich absentee owners the over seers were pretty bad. Many drank to excess did not have a wife and like a football coach would be hired away by another owner if they could meet quotas of profits. They did this bybeing brutal and they were the ones usually accussed of rape.
There were many whites who had black families and sent them north to be educated and provided as well as they could considering growing laws before the Civil War which were designed to segregate the races.
Although it is not considered poltically correct a great number of blacks were in the Confederate army but this is downplayed to infer they were all bodyservants. But although many served as teamsters and in labor battalions a great number bore arms and fought. I have seen pictures of many in uniforms and many Union battlefield reports list fights with blacks in Cobfederate uniforms. Many drew Confederate pensions from southern states since they were not eligible for a federal pension. And I have seen some black women drawing a confederate state pension because their husband was white in a Confederate unit.
Its just a vert complicated situation. If you want to start delving into this I suggest you enter the word Melungeon into some search engines and start reading.