I don't think there is a relationship, at least not in this county, between your line of Foglesongs and mine.
I did some more census work and found your charles in Schuyler Co., MO in 1850:
Charles Foglesong, 48, VA, farmer
Mary, 48, VA
Simon, 23, VA, farmer
Michael, 22, VA, farmer
Charles, 19, VA, farmer
Elizabeth, 17, VA
George, 15, IND, farmer
Elias, 13, IND
Henry, 11, IND
John, 9, MO
Andrew, 7, MO
Mary A., 5, MO
next door to Charles was a probable son:
Peter Foglesong, 25, VA, farmer
Mary A., 26, KY
George, 6, MO
JOhn, 2, MO
In 1840 a Charles was living in JOhnson Co., IND,but I couldn't pull up his census reading. I kept getting the page of slaves and when I went backwards and forwards I didn't find him. It will require reading the entire census for that county. Figure you can do that;-)
Anyway, he's there somewhere. Also living there was a Joseph, age 20-30, a George, age 30-40 and a Christian, age 60-70. Christian is probably the father of these boys, but you will need to prove that one way or the other. Also living in Johnson Co in 1840 was Roda Foglesong; I didn't pull her up.
It looks like Wythe Co., VA is the place to look for your family. In 1830 there were 3 Charles, one of whom is Sr., 2 Christians and a George.
I'm quite sure there has been a lot of research done on this line of Foglesongs. Perhaps someone else will read this and respond to you. In the meantime, check out your local genealogy library.