Sheffield Enos is named in Benjamin Enos' will recorded in Hopkinton, 6:180-181. The will was dated 3 June 1843, proved 10 July 1843. Names wife: Penelope; sons: James K, Sheffield, and Alfred; daughters: Mary Stillman, Nancy Brand, Lucy Reynolds, and Clarissa M. Tibbitts; grandson Alfred Crandall under 21. (RIGR, 7:163)
When you say that RI does not have information on Sheffield, I assume that you could not find a birth, marriage or death record. Sheffield was born in the "dark" period for RI records (between the Rev War and ca 1850) when fewAvital records were recorded.
Sheffield is also mentioned in Arnold's Vital Records of RI. In 1846 he was a member of the First General Baptist Church of Richmond. Others listed in the same record appear to be Hannah Enos and Mary. So I don't know if this is your Sheffield. I found this on the newenglandancestors.org database, but I did not find the volume and page.
Sheffield appears to be listed in the census for New York beginning in 1830, so the 1846 mention of a Sheffield Enos does not appear to be he. What were the age brackets of Benjamin Enos's family listed in the 1800-1820 censuses?
You could order the microfilm of the Hopkinton probate records from a Family History Center and see if there are receipts for the estate settlement or any other information Beaman did not put in the RIGR abstract. Also look at the Land Evidence records in Hopkinton. Did Sheffield buy or sell any land before moving to NY? Did he get his father's earmark for his livestock?