Longbottom is the name of a locality near Luddendenfoot, which was once in the township of Warley. It means simply “the long valley-bottom”, and is descriptive of the level stretch of ground along the [River] Calder at that point. It is mentioned as early as 1308 - some 70 years before the family itself is recorded. The surname probably developed therefore, about 1350 ‘for in 1379 two men, Richard and Thomas Longboteham, were taxed at Warley, the only persons with this name in the whole of the West Riding.’ Richard was the favourite family name for generations. One Richard Longebothome was constable of Halifax in 1439 and others were taxed on land held in Warley in 1524 and 1545. Throughout therest of the century branches of the family continued to live in Warley, both at Longbottom itself and at Hollins Hall, but others moved further afield. Even in the 15th century the surname had made its way to Ripon and York but the move had most to do with the expansion of Longbottom into the Bradford area took place probably about 1530. In that year James Oldfield of Warley granted property in Shibden to Edward, the son of Richard Longebothome, and a generation later there were as many Longbottoms living in Northowram as there were in Warley. A will of 1541 tells us that one of their homes was at Brian Scholes where John Longbothome was the tenant of John Northende. Other wills for the 16th and 17th centuries invariably describe these Longbottoms as clothiers but they also seem to have been involved in land transactions over a wide area and in the 1590s the surname was linked with Keighley, Eldwick, Baildon and Rombalds Moor. This probably accounts for the spread of the name in Airedale but it was not long before the first Longbottoms arrived in Bradford. In 1616, for example, William Rookes, then living a Fixby Hall, leased to William Longbottom a cottage described as having been “lately built in a close of woody ground called Roidshall Park”. The evidence suggests that Parkland and waste were being enclosed by the Rookes at that time and that the Longbottoms were one of several families new ‘to the manor who benefited’. A second lease was granted in 1648, this time to Jonas Longbottom of Wibsey. It consisted of an acre “taken of the commons of Wibsey” and a cottage newly built by Jonas in a place called Manor Lane. In a list of the tenants of Royds Hall in 1651 Longbottom was one of the most prolific names, so the inference is that its present ramification in and around Bradford owes a great deal to the moves made around 1600.
This article appeared in the Yorkshire Post circa 1970 (I believe). Hopefully it puts your understanding of the surname right. Regards, Peter Longbottom.