“ALEXANDER McKEE / WHITE ELK [died on the Thames River in 1799], civil servant / Indian Department official, son of an Irish trader and a Shawnee / Chouanon woman.Influential British official in the America-British frontier during the post Revolutionary period; lived on the Thames River during the 1790s; named WHITE ELK by the Native leaders he worked with and supported (Allen 1975, 1993; Horsman).
THOMAS McKEE [born c. 1770 on the Scioto River; died on October 20, 1814 at Ile des Cascades, Lower Canada], Shawnee / Chaouanon civil servant, son of ALEXANDER McKEE and a Shawnee woman; married THERESE, daughter of JOHN ASKIN, in 1797; leased Pelee Island from Ojibwa for 999 years in 1788; fought at Fort Recovery in 1794; attended a council with Mohawk Chief Thayedanegea and the Odawa and Ojibwa Nations at Detroit in August 1796; later that year his father appointed superintendent of Indian Affairs of the North West district [Fort St. Joseph]; made a captain of the 60th Regiment of Foot on February 20, 1796; elected to the Upper Canada house of assembly in 1797; became a major in 1807; served as a captain in the Indian Department in 1812-1814; was at the fall of Detroit; died of alcoholism (Allen 1993: 91; Horsman: 150; DCB vol. V: 535-536).”
DESTRUCTION OF RUDDLE'S AND MARTIN'S FORTS
IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR By MAUDE WARD LAFFERTY
From The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, Vol. 54, October, 1956, No. 189
 Matthew Elliott was a native of Ireland who came to America as a young man in 1761. He served in Bouquet's expedition for the relief of Fort Pitt in 1763. For many years thereafter he was engaged in the Indian trade or the government service, or both with headquarters at Pittsburg. By the opening of the Revolution he was conducting rather extensive trading operations and had acquired much influence over the Indians of the Ohio Valley. Probably by reason of his government employment, Elliott remained loyal to the King, and in the autumn of 1776 set out with two or three followers and a considerable train of goods for Detroit. En route his goods and slaves were seized by the Indians, but Elliott himself reached Detroit in safety. There, however, he incurred the suspicion of disloyalty and was arrested and sent down to Quebec by Gov. Hamilton. On being released he made his way back to Pittsburg, where he associated with other loyalists and became known as a dangerous character. On March 28, 1778, Elliott again sought refuge at Detroit in company with Alexander McKee and Simon Girtv. This time he won the confidence of the British authorities and was soon employed in the Indian department. Throughout the remainder of the Revolution he was an active leader of Indians in the warfare in the West, participating in almost every important expedition in the Ohio region during the war. He led 300 Indians in the defeat of Col. Crawford's expedition, aided in the slaughter of the Kentuckians at the Blue Licks and served with Hamilton on the Vincennes campaign and with Bird on his invasion of Kentucky in 1780. He effectively served his country in the operations in Western Ohio from 1790 to 1794, and July, 1796, was promoted to superintendency of Indian Affairs. When war with the United States seemed again impending, the government found that no one else could control the western Indians, and Elliott was reappointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs. He was as much as any man responsible for the River Raisin Massacre. Few men have known how to control the American Indian as successfully as did Elliott, and none have been such bitter foes of the United States. He died at Burlington Heights, May 7, 1814, a fugitive from his home which had been ravaged by the victorious Americans. Elliott married Sarah Donovan, daughter of Matthew Donovan, one of Detroit's early schoolmasters. The outward shell of his home still stands on the shore of the Detroit River, a short distance below Amherstberg. The John Askin Papers, I, 257-58.
 Alexander McKee was a native of Pennsylvania who engaged in the Indian trade, and in 1772 was appointed Deputy Agent of Indian Affairs at Fort Pitt. When the Revolution came on, McKee sympathized with the British government. In 1777 he was imprisoned by General Hand. Being released on parole, he fled to Detroit in the spring of 1778, in company with Simon Girty and Matthew Elliott. In the same year he was appointed captain in the British Indian Department, and before long was given rank of deputy agent, and subsequently became Superintendent of Indian Affairs at Detroit. In 1789 he was made a member of the Land Board of the District of Hesse. McKee was an inveterate foe of the Americans and had much to do with inciting the Indians to war against them. The Battle of Fallen Timbers in August, 1794, was fought in the immediate vicinity of his trading establishment on the Maumee River, and at its conclusion, Wayne proceeded to raze his property. The day before the battle McKee intending to participate in it, made his will. A copy of this will is now in the Burton Historical Collection. McKee removed to the River Thames upon the American occupation of Detroit, and died there of lockjaw on January 13, 1799. Ibid., I, 801.
 Simon Girty was born in Pennsylvania in 1741. At the age of fifteen captured by the Senecas and lived with them as a prisoner for three years. He subsequently acted as an interpreter, and in this capacity served in Lord Dunmore's campaign. Loyalist in his sympathies, Girty in the spring of 1778 accompanied Alexander McKee and Matthew Elliott on their flight from Pittsburg to Detroit. Girty, like Elliott and McKee, became a notable leader of the Indians in the Northwest in their warfare with the Americans. For some reason Simon Girty was regarded by the Americans with greater detestation than any other of their foes, and he seems to have returned their feeling in full measure. In the summer of 1784 Girty married Catherine Malott, who had been living for several years as a captive of the Delaware tribe in Ohio, and established a home a short distance below Amherstberg. For a decade longer he continued to lead, or encourage, the western Indians in their warfare with the Americans, but this phase of his career was definitely closed by Wayne's victory at Fallen Timbers and the peace which followed it. Save for a considerable period of exile during the War of 1812 when the Americans were in control of Amherstberg, Girty continued to reside there until his death, Februarv 18, 1818. Ibid. I, 308-09.
The Ruddlesforter is a quarterly publication
by and for individuals interested in the
preservation of the history of these
significant Revolutionary War forts
British Attacks Against Ruddle's & Martin’s Stations
In June 1780
by Don Lee and Martha Pelfrey
n the summer of 1780 a large force of
British and Indians swooped down on
the American frontier forts in
Kentucky, killing more than 24 men,
women and children. In just two days, the
tiny forts of Ruddle’s and Martin’s
stations were destroyed and more than 400
prisoners were taken on a death march to
Detroit. Many of the old, the young and
the weak died during that grueling march
of 600 miles.
During the Revolutionary, war there
were three invasions by the British and
Indians against the American Forts in
Kentucky. The most significant of these
was the attack on Ruddle’s and Martin’s
forts by British Captain Henry Bird. This
second invasion was a well-planned
counter attack by the British Command
at Detroit in retaliation for General Clark's
victory at Vincennes and the capture of
Lt. Governor Hamilton of Detroit. The
plan was to destroy the Kentucky forts
and drive the settlers back over the
mountains to the East Coast.
Captain Bird was chosen because of
his ability to recruit the Lake Indians. In
the fall of 1779, he went among the tribal
councils winning them over to his plan. It
was easy since the Indians were already
furious over American Colonel Bowman's
burning of Indian villages and crops near
Piqua and Chillicothe (old town) in July.
They were eager to retaliate against
American intrusions upon their lands.
There would be much plunder to be
gained by such an attack. May of 1780
was a very wet season in the Ohio Valley.
The streams were full to overflowing and
navigation on the small rivers was good.
Captain Bird left Detroit in the middle of
May with 200 Canadian Regulars, Tories
and about 300 Lake Indians, mostly
Ottawas, Hurons, Taways, and Mingoes.
He had with him several cannon. Some
accounts say he had six, others accounts
say he had three.
Allan W. Eckert in his book The
Frontiersmen says he had six. Five French
swivels mounted on horseback and one
large brass cannon on wheels. He went
south by boat on Lake Erie and entered
the mouth of the Maumee River where
present-day Toledo is located and went up
stream or south into central Ohio. At the
mouth of the Auglaize River a force of
about 300 warriors of the Delawares,
Hurons, Wyandots, Ottawas, Chippawaa,
Tawas, Miamis and Potawatomies met
him. From there, they paddled their boats
south on the Auglaize to a portage point
called Wapakoneta by the Indians. Boats,
supplies and cannons were carried south
over a portage trail to the Great Miami.
The portage was difficult and took him
two weeks to travel the twenty miles. By
the time he reached the mouth of the
Great Miami at the Ohio River the
Shawnee had joined him giving him eight
hundred and fifty Indians and a total force
of about twelve hundred fifty men. With
the Shawnee came four white men: the
Girtys-Simon, James and George and the
Indian agent Alexander McKee. The four
kept the Indians keyed up in furious anger
by reminding them of the murder of their
Chiefs Cornstalk, Pucksinwah and Black
CHRISTOPHER GIST'S JOURNALS
WITH HISTORICAL, GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL NOTES
AND BIOGRAPHIES OF HIS CONTEMPORARIES
WILLIAM M. DARLINGTON [1815-1889]
PITTSBURGH, J. R. WELDIN & CO.,
[Pages 159-201. Page numbers will appear in the text in brackets in bold print.]
[Transcription is Verbatim.]
Mentions Alexander McKee
Historical Collections of Ohio
By Henry Howe
MCKEE and ELLIOTT were Pennsylvanians, and the latter, I think, of Irish birth. They resided, at the commencement of the Revolutionary war, at Path Valley, Pa.. A brother and a brother-in-law of mine lived in the same neighborhood; I therefore have undoubted authority for the facts. A number of tories resided in the township, MCKEE and ELLIOTT being leaders. A large proportion of the inhabitants being whigs, the place became too warm to hold them. They fled to the enemy, and leagued with the Shawanese Indians in committing depredations on the frontier settlers. Both of these incendiaries had Indian wives and children, and finally their influence became so great among the savages that they were appointed agents for Indian affairs by the British government, and continued as such until their death. Matthew ELLIOTT was an uncle, by his father's side, to the late, Commodore ELLIOTT, and had a son killed in the late war, by the Indians under LOGAN. [See page 353.] On the death of MCKEE, his son, a half-breed, was a deputy agent in Upper Canada,. He was a splendid-looking man, and married an accomplished white lady. He had too much of the Indian nature, and the marriage turned out somewhat unhappily.