My family in descended from the following: Edward Arnold Menke b.Lemgo, Germany m. Caroline Justine Amalia Blume 22 Sept 1839 in Lemgo, Germany. Edward died 28 oct 1862 in LaGrange MO shortly after getting out of Andersonville Prison following service in the Civil war.
They had at least two children, Frederick Edward Menke b. 7 apr 1845 in Lemgo, and Conrad Edward Philip Menke b. 1 jan 1855.
Frederick Edward m. Mary Christine Hartman 7 jun 1866. Mary was born 3 sep 1845.
Tha names and ages seem to match the records you found in the MO census.Unfortunately, my information ends with Frederick & Caroline. The International Genealogical Index on the LDS site shows a Caroline Justine Amalie Blume b. 18 feb 1817 in Lemgo, Germany to Johann Friedrich Carl Blume and Sophie Justine Rethmeier. I do not have verification that this is my ancestor.
I have some more information on Frederick and Edward if you have interest.If you have further information I would be happy to know more.Best wishes!