This Thomas Jefferson Phipps would presumably the person of that name who is listed with his parents in the 1850 census in Muddy Precinct, Coles County, Illinois. That Thomas Jefferson Phipps would have been born around 1838 in Illinois.
His parents, according to the census entry, were William and Sarah Phipps. William was a farmer born about 1792 in Virginia and Sarah was born about 1796 in Pennsylvania. Thomas had a sister named Martha Ann, who was born about 1835 in Illinois.