Norman, Finally I can answer your query of last December. We are back in MI and I have had one cataract removed. It is amazing.
The 1880 Census provides the explanation for most of your question. In my opinion [I've seen this often], the placing of John Tevebaugh's (a son of 1866-deceased Solomon Sriver Tevebaugh, s/o Job) name confused the census taker (a poor note taker) as he pondered his notes. The usual entry is by age, and this time all that followed were Talberts, but he forgot that when he made up the form. By the way, John also was listed (as Teaverbaugh, J. 12, b. MO) with the family of John Wells [24, farmer, b. MO - l. 27, Big Spring Twp., Fulton Co.].
More important for you: compare the 1870 Census listing for T. S. Talbert with his for 1880 and you will find the Mary A., the Laura (Louisa L.) and the William (Warren). Note the ages! The Sarah could have died in the 1870s, or more likely married before the 1880 Census.
Lack of knowledge of spelling plus poor haqndwriting frequently are factors in these census problems. [for example: the Baxter Co. 1880 Census entry for Archibald Y. Tevebaugh was (I'm not kidding!) "Arthur G. Tebreboys." Yet, the given names of Martha and the children are quite correct.]
John Tevebaugh (later Teverbaugh), Solomon's son, probably was working out among relatives since his mother also died the year after Solomon. He was listed both with T. S. Talbert and John Wells, with whom he lived during the year.
There is another Talbert-Tevebaugh connection as well. Minnie was married to Robert L. Talbert, Sr. as you know. And Minnie's brother James had a son, Everett Leon, who married Edna Lillie Talbert, the d/o Timothy Albert Talbert and Nettie Katherine Oels. Their daughter and I correspond.
Any other questions, just ask. Have fun with all your Tevebaugh relatives. The insertion of an "r" usually was done by clerks who had to write what an illiterate Tevebaugh said was his name. This was very common, even from the early 1700s when we Dieffenbachs immigrated to America.John