Because of the info in your original posting I looked at a GEDCOM and took for granted that your James was the son of Joshua Whitlock as you stated.Now I'm not so sure because you state that "multiple census records show Claude's father as being born in Ohio".Did you mean Iowa, or did the original source you looked at actually state Ohio? James K. Whitlock, son of Joshua was definitely born in Iowa, not Ohio.Begining with the 1850 census in Jefferson Co Iowa, James age 1 is listed as being born in Iowa.Then in the 1856 census of Jefferson Co Iowa, James age 7 is listed as born in Iowa.In the 1860 census of Jefferson Co Iowa, James age 13 is listed as born in Iowa.In all of the above census entries James is enumerated in the home of his parents, Joshua and Sarah Whitlock.In 1870 James is listed as age 21 born Iowa living with and working as a farm hand for his brother-in-law, Cutler Heseltine in Jeffeson Co Iowa.Cutler age 23 married Elizabeth Whitlock age 23 in Jefferson County Iowa on Dec 7, 1865. (I might add here that in Jefferson County Iowa on May 8, 1846 that Joshua Whitlock's sister, Sarah Emaline Whitlock age 18 married John Brown age 23, and Amos Lemmons performed the ceremony.) I looked at an online photo copy of the marriage record for your James Whitlock and the info contained in it is as follows: James R. Whitlock of Newton County Missouri to Miss Eliza Jane Scott of Jasper County Missouri married on the 10th day of June AD1872 in Jasper County Missouri. The 1885 census of Baker, Crawford County Kansas census entry is as follows: James K. Whitlock 36 born Ohio, coal miner Lualla 16 wife Sarah E. 10 Claud 1 Joshua Lester Whitlock is buried in the Promise City Cemetery in Promise City, Wayne County Iowa.The WPA record states he died June 12, 1899 at age 75; and he was a Civil War Veteran.