I would suggest the clue to the first wife of this John Yeaton is in the naming of his first child by Mary Chamberlain, Barbara A. Yeaton, age 4, 1850 census of Augusta.
This would indicate he is probably that John Yeaton who m. 4/9/1828 at Richmond, Sagadahoc, ME Anna Barbara Orff, of Waldoboro, ME, daughter of John Orff and Mary Deal.
The children I have for this marriage are (1) Harriet Ann Yeaton b. 5/27/1834 m. 8/11/1861 an A.B. Hodgkins, (2)John Warren Yeaton b. 3/8/1836, age 45 in the 1880 census of Swanville, Waldo, ME, 1900 census of Vassalboro, ME says he was married 40 years, death record Vassalboro, Kennebec, ME 6/9/1901 calls him a Sea Capt., so he m. about 1860 Eliza Jane Robbins, (3) Ellen Jane Yeaton b. 11/30/1838 m. 1/5/1866 at Yarmouth, ME, John Smith Seabury, (4) Benjamin A. F. Yeaton b. about 1844, age 36 1880 census, Augusta, Kennebec, ME, Intent's Augusta 1/18/1864 Harriet/Hattie Ware.
These children seem to fit the earlier census data, with the exception of Harriet Ann Yeaton b. 5/27/1834, who should have shown up in the posted 1850 census, one would think, for JohnYeaton and Mary Chamberlain.
I "suspect" this John Yeaton was a sibling of Cyrus Yeaton b. 12/4/1803 d. 10/4/1885, m. 12/1828 Mary H. Coss, and 12/3/1845 Lucy H. Read, and Asa H. Yeaton d. 9/17/1849, m. 1/17/1833 Caroline W. Moore/Moers. The Harriet Yeaton who m. A.B. Hodgkins may belong to one of these siblings.
I would think there must have been other children of the marriage to Anna Barbara Orff in 1828, before the birth of John Warren Yeaton in 1834, perhaps married and out of the household by 1850.
These siblings of Richmond, Sagadahoc, ME, I "suspect" are the children of Samuel Yeaton and Dorothy/Dolly Nock who were m. 2/15/1803 by Rev. Isaac Hasey at Lebanon, NH, and it is probably this Samuel Yeaton who m. (intent's) Pittston, Kennebec, ME 4/19/1842 Mrs. Naomi Gelley/Gilley, and she "may" be the Naomi Yeaton who m. 10/6/1850 Jeremiah Hill of Smithfield, ME.
Most of this data from secondary sources, but perhaps providing some clues for anyone researching and wishing to further document this branch of the family.