ANCESTORS OF CRAIG CAMPBELL:Information about Thomas Price
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Thomas Price (b. Abt. 1610, d. August 23, 1701)Thomas Price (son of Andrew Price and Unknown)1484, 1485 was born Abt. 1610 in Cowes, Iles of Wright, England or possibly Wales1486, 1487, and died August 23, 1701 in Baltimore County, Maryland1488, 1489.He married Elizabeth Phillips on Abt. 1634 in Calvert County, Maryland1490, 1491, daughter of Robert Phillips and Brigetta Gorge.
Notes for Thomas Price:
Thomas Price is the Price family immigrant ancestor. He was born about 1610 in Cowes, Isle of Wright, England.
SOURCE: Ancestral File #: LSGN-NW
At the age of 23, on Novemeber 22nd, 1633, Thomas Price left his homeland and set sail from Cowes, England, on the "Ark and Dove Expedition".
SOURCE: Price, Thomas, ....Endnotes: A andP
A - The Society of The Ark and The Dove
P - As listed in the book by Robert E. T. Pogue, Yesterday in Old St. Mary's County, published by author, 1985, Bushwood, MD 20618
SOURCE: The following list is taken from Series II, "Register of Maryland's Heraldic Families," by Alice Norris Parran, 1938, [the passenger list through the research of Mrs. G. W. Hodges].
Below is a detailed history of the founding of Maryland and a account of this expedition:
Maryland was developed from a tract of country belonging to the original grant of Virginia. George Calvert, the First Lord Baltimore, was looking for land with a similar climate to that of England on which to establish his new colony.
He had founded a colony on the Island of Newfoundland in 1627, but due to extreme bitter cold in the winter, the colony was abandoned and the colonists returned to England on the ships, the Ark and the Dove.
He then put his sights on obtaining land in Virginia, parts of which had already been colonized. In 1632, King Charles I of England granted what is present-day Maryland and Delaware to George Calvert. George wrote the Charter of Maryland, but died that same year. His son, Cecelius Calvert, the Second Lord Baltimore, along with his brother, Leonard Calvert, were determined to complete their father's mission and establish a colony in which those in England who suffered from religious persecution could live in a land where freedom and tolerance would reign. That land would become Maryland.
Maryland did not receive the name that was initially planned for it. When George Calvert wrote the Charter, he left the space for the name blank, thinking that King Charles would like to write in the name, "Crescentia," the land of Increase of Plenty, when he signed it. Following George's death, Cecelius presented the Charter to the King who was surprised that the name of the colony had not been entered. The King decided that the new colony should be named after the Queen, "Terra Maria", which is Latin for "Mary Land."
In order to get the best applicants for the new colony, Cecelius Calvert advertised the new world. He did a tremendous sales job on the new territory, basing his remarks only from reports he had received from explorers such as Captain John Smith, who had not seen the land all the way up the Potomac River himself.
Cecelius' salesmanship proved effective as he recruited near twenty"Gentleman" as well as shipbuilders, carpenters, wainwrights, brick makers, farmers, and their wives. There were people from all classes of Englishmen, both Catholics and Protestants (Anglicans). Some of those aboard were indentured servants who gave up their freedom in exchange for their paid passage to Maryland which would then be repaid through work in the new colony. It has been reported that at least two persons of African descent were among the initial passengers as well.
To avoid the risk of starvation which had plagued the colonies of Jamestown and Plymouth, Cecelius spent one year carefully preparing for the journey. He planned the departure from England in winter so that the colonists would arrive in Maryland in the spring when planting season began. An abundance of food was stored on the ship which included items such as wine, beer, flour, cheeses, dried fish, and an abundance of vegetable seed. He also required each man and woman to take along enough clothing for one year, as well as additional supplies, which included: extra shoes, 1 shovel, 1 ax, 1 saw, 1 grindstone, nails, 6 bolts, canvas, 1 frying pan, 1 spit, 1 pot, 1 gridiron, 1 flask, 1 belt, 1 sword, 1 bandolier, 1 musket, 10 lbs. of gun powder, and10 lbs. of lead.
On a misty morning on November 22, 1633, after Leonard Calvert received explicit instructions from his brother, Cecelius, ordering privacy and silence regarding religious matters, approximately 140 people set sail from England on two ships, the Ark and the Dove. The Ark, captained by Richard Lowe, was a very large ship for its time, with a cargo capacity of about 300 tons, measuring about 110 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 13 feet deep. The Dove, captained by Richard Orchard, was an armed pinnace about one-seventh the size of the Ark.
The ships' course was not set directly toward Maryland, rather, to avoid the brisk winter blasts of the North Atlantic, they sailed southward to the coast of Africa. They planned stops at the Canary Islands and the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa before sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean to Barbados Island in the Caribbean. Following the calm waters of the Caribbean, they were to stop at Old Point Comfort in Virginia before proceeding to Maryland.
Soon after leaving England, they ran into a terrible storm in which the Dove was forced to return to the harbor and wait it out. The Ark was unable to find the Dove and, assuming the worst had happened, ventured on alone. The colonists "fought boredom, lived in cramped quarters below deck, and slept on thin, straw-filled mats. The women had scant privacy. Men took turns at the bilge pumps. One could bathe only in saltwater, and certainly personal discomfort and dirty linen weighted less in the balance than the danger of being washed overboard. Meals of salted meat, hard biscuits, and dried peas made one wish for more fresh water."
On January 3, 1634, the Ark reached Barbados where the passengers rested and gathered fresh water and food supplies. Just then, to their surprise, they saw the Dove appear on the horizon! The two ships were reunited and continued the remainder of their journey together.
On February 27, the ships arrived in Old Point Comfort, Virginia, to give some letters to the Governor of Virginia. There they bought pigs, cows, and other supplies.
They set sail again on March 3 up the Chesapeake, rounded the corner at Point Lookout, and entered the Potomac River. Of the Chesapeake Bay, Father White wrote: "the baye is the most delightful water I ever saw between two sweet landes."People crowded the decks anxious to get their first glimpse of Maryland and its forests, birds, and Indians. They passed the St. Mary's River and continued on and came to rest on an island which they named St. Clement's Island (today called Blakistone). There they erected a wooden cross and Father White said the first mass on Maryland soil on March 25, 1634. This was the beginning of St. Mary's County and Maryland. March 25 is celebrated each year in St. Mary's City as Maryland Day.
At St. Clement's Island, there was no protected harbor. So, Leonard Calvert decided to look for a better place. Captain Fleet in Virginia had told him that there was a good location further down the Potomac. They sailed past Piney Point to the St. Mary's River and, probably because the tide had changed, they were able to come ashore. About the St. Mary's River, Father White wrote: "This river makes two excellent bayes, wherein might harbour 300 saile of 1000 tunne a peece with very great safetie, the one called St. George's bay, the other, more inward the St. Marie's." On March 27th they arrived at the Indian Village of Yeocomico, and purchased it from the Indians for blankets, cloth, knives, trinkets, axes, hoes and other tools. They renamed the village St. Mary's.
Narrative of a voyage to Maryland 1633-1634 by Father Andrew White, S.J. who came with the Ark and the Dove:
On the Twenty Second of the month of November, in the year 1633, being St. Cecilia's Day, we set sail from Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, with a gentle east wind blowing. And after committing the...ship to the protection of God especially, and of His most Holy Mother, and St. Ignatius, and all the guardians of Maryland, we sailed...past a number of rocks...which from their shape, are called the Needles...We left behind us the western promontory of England and the Scilly Isles...sailing easily on...[we passed] over the British channel. Yet we did not hasten, ...fearing, if we left the pinnace [i.e., the Dove] too far behind us, that it would become the prey of Turks and Pirates, who generally infest that sea...
The winds increasing, and the sea growing more boisterous, we could see the pinnace in the distance, showing two lights of her masthead. Then indeed we thought it was all over with her, and that she had been swallowed up in the deep whirlpools; for in a moment she had passed out of sight, and no news of her reached us for six months afterwards...[But after returning to England and made] a fresh start from thence, ...[and] overtook us [months later at the Antilles].
[Several days later] so fierce a tempest broke forth, ...that it seemed every minute as if we must be swallowed up by the waves...The clouds...were fearful to behold, ...and excited the belief that all the malicious spirits of the storm, and all the evil genii of Maryland had come forth to battle against us...And such a furious hurricane followed...that the mainsail, the only one we were carrying, [was] torn in the middle from top to bottom...All control of the rudder being lost, the ship now drifted about like a dish in the water, at the mercy of the waves...[But eventually] the storm was abating...[and] we had delightful weather for three months. [We continued past the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Madeiras, with favorable winds [the Portuguese trade winds], which blew steadily towards the South and the south-west [to] the Fortunate Isles [the Canary Islands].
[En route to the Caribbean Sea Christmas was celebrated and] in order that that day might be better kept, wine was given out; and those who drank of it too freely, were seized the next day with a fever; and of these, not long afterwards, about twelve died... [We reached Barbados on the third of January, [but] They had no beef or mutton at any price, ...On the twenty-fourth of January, we weighed anchor and [continued past St. Lucia, Guadalupe, Montserrat, and Nevis and spent ten days at St. Christopher's].
At length, sailing from this place, [we went north, rounded Cape Hatteras, and entered Chesapeake Bay between Cape Charles and Cape Henry and] reached Point Comfort, in Virginia, on the 27th of February, full of apprehension, lest the English in habitants, who were much displeased at our settling, should be plotting something against us. Nevertheless the letters we carried from the King, and from the high treasurer of England, served to allay their anger.
After being kindly treated for eight or nine days, we set sail on the third of March, and entering the Chesapeake Bay, we turned our course to the north to reach the Potomack River...Having now arrived at the wished-for country. Never have I beheld a larger or more beautiful river [than the Potomac]. The Thames seems a mere rivulet in comparison with it...The first island we came to [we called] St. Clement's Island...On the day of the Annunciation of the Most Holy Virgin Mary in the year 1634, we celebrated the mass for the first time, on the island...[then] we took upon our shoulders a great cross, which we had hewn out of a tree...[and] erected a trophy to Christ the Saviour...Since, however, the island contains only four hundred acres, we saw that it would not afford room enough for the new settlement, [we went] about nine leagues from St. Clement, [and] sailed into the mouth of a river, on the north side of the Potomac [now St. Mary's River] capable of containing three hundred ships of the largest size...We landed...and going in about a mile from the shore, we laid out the plan of a city, naming it after St. Mary. And in order to avoid every appearance of injustice, and afford opportunity for hostility, we bought from the [Indian] King thirty miles of land.
At the age of 51 Andrew White, an England Jesuit priest, was about the oldest person on the Ark. Father White taught the Indians his language. In the year of 1645 Father White was captured and taken back to England in Chains.
Extracted from The Maryland Historical Society's Fund Publication No. 1, Baltimore, Maryland, 1874.
The initial settlement in St. Mary's:
Once ashore, the colonists were met by Algonquin Indians, who were characterized by Father White as looking warlike with red and blue lines painted on their faces, dressed in deerskin, and decorated with shells, teeth, beads, and feathers, but "of a very loveing and kinde nature." The Yaocomaco Indians shared their cleared land with the colonists and brought them food such as game and boiled or roasted oysters. They showed the male settlers how to hunt with a bow and arrow and how to catch oysters. The Indians were largely responsible for the success of the colonists. Sadly, however, the Indians eventually disappeared from Southern Maryland. Apparently, whenever an Indian was involved in any way with an offence, the blame was put on members of the closest tribe. The Indians, having a high sense of honor, could not tolerate false accusations and eventually moved elsewhere.
Lord Baltimore's vision for the newly colonized society was to have a hierarchical system of landlords and tenants of the manorial system that characterized England's past. Early life in St. Mary's fulfilled that vision. The Gentlemen who arrived on the Ark and the Dove were selected by Baltimore to dominate the settlement in St. Mary's. These Gentlemen were the sons of prominent Roman Catholic families in England. The majority of the settlers, however, served on the manors as indentured servants or tenant farmers.
Lord Baltimore had made plans for providing land grants which generally awarded a colonist's contribution to the settlement. Settlers who had paid their own transport and that of five "able men" between the ages of 16 and 50, were promised 2000 acres (1000 after 1635). This grant entitled a subscriber to erect a manor and name it whatever he wished. Those accompanied in passage by fewer than five servants received 100 acres for themselves and an additional 100 for each servant. Married settlers received 200 acres, 100 per servant, and 50 acres for each child under 16 years of age. Women were also entitled to land. If widowed and with children, a woman could receive the same grant as a man. An unmarried woman with servants could receive 50 acres for each of them. Settlers paid rent on surveyed land and did not receive the title until they received their patent signed by the governor on behalf of Lord Baltimore.
Initially, the population in Maryland increased from the first 140 settlers who arrived on the Ark and Dove to an approximate 600 inhabitants by 1640. A period characterized by severe depression and political turmoil caused a reduction in the population to only about 200 by 1645. In the late 1640's, the recovery began with a rapid growth in population throughout the remainder of the colonial period.
What were some of the factors that influenced the fluctuations in population growth in colonial St. Mary's?
-- Mortality rates in transit and upon arrival in Maryland were often high. Colonists were faced with an initial period of "seasoning" that some did not survive. Diseases such as malaria, smallpox, diphtheria, yellow fever, and influenza were prevalent.
-- Life expectancy was short. Males who reached 20 years old could expect to die in their early 40's. Less than 30 percent of males survived to celebrate their 15th birthday.
-- There was a surplus of men which limited the possibility of marriage. Men outnumbered women six to one in the 1630's and three to one in the 1690's. Marriages were later in life. Most women who came to Maryland were indentured servants and generally in their early twenties. Indentured servants were not permitted to marry until they completed their contract, which was typically four or more years.
-- Families were small. Women rarely had more than four children. Nearly 30 percent of the children born in Maryland died by one year old and nearly half before reaching age 20.
The Structure of Early Society
The settlers began by settling close to one another. By 1642, they had spread out into three major settlement clusters. Sites were chosen primarily for their tobacco production, but also for growing Indian corn, English grains, garden crops, and the grazing of livestock. The settlers formed into the manorial system, with 16 private manors by 1642.
Most of the more prominent immigrants were Roman Catholic, although some Protestants of high standing were recruited as well. The majority of the settlers lived and worked on the manors of the Gentlemen as indentured servants or tenant farmers. Most of them were Protestants, most were young males, there were few women and children, and complete family units were rare. The indentured servants were either elite men who had special talents to offer their masters, such as tailors, carpenters, joiners, millers, shoemakers, and even one reported case of a medical doctor. These skilled servants made up only about 4 percent of the total. The remainder of the servants were laborers.
This hierarchical structure did not protect the colony from disorder and dissention internally and externally. External dissention included conflicts with the Indians, London merchants, and the English in Virginia and on Kent Island. Internal dissention was blamed, in part, on the unruliness of the Gentlemen settlers who appeared to be out for themselves in their pursuit of power, profit, and personal growth. There was dissention between proprietors and colonists, Catholics and Protestants, local leaders and settlers, and among the Gentlemen themselves. The result of this "looking out for number one" attitude resulted in anarchy in the middle 1640's.Richard Ingle, a Protestant ship captain, arrived in the new settlement with a crew of sailors and mercenaries who transposed England's civil war to St. Mary's.
As a result of Richard Ingle's uprising, a new social order ensued, often referred to as "the age of the yeoman planter." The Gentlemen who had originally arrived had, for the most part, died or returned home to England. The inequalities that had characterized the initial settlement transformed into a more equal distribution of land and wealth. A new group of settlers emerged. Indentured servants remained among the majority of immigrants. However, small farmers coming from England with their families and small amounts of money and ex-servants from Virginia helped to transform the manorial society and the Gentlemen into the yeoman planter. Those at the top who had come from English families who had landed in the colony were replaced by those of mercantile origin. These men who began as merchants often acquired great social mobility.
Following the mid-1640's, most of the indentured servants worked on small estates with one or two other servants. These servants were fully integrated into the families they served. Many of the masters on these small estates had been servants at one time themselves. Servants were expected to pursue opportunities and become masters themselves once freed. If new masters were able to work hard, avoid disease, accidents, and bad luck, they were able to accumulate wealth. America was the land of opportunity if one worked hard enough.
Life on a small plantation in the seventeenth century has been described as harsh, impoverished, and uncertain. Life was drab--houses were plain and dark, diets were monotonous. The uncertainties stemming from the rise and fall of tobacco prices left them unable at times to pay debts and hold onto their homes. The unfortunate event of an illness, accident, or early death could have dire consequences for remaining family members.
Women were scarce and heavily sought after. Families with little money required the woman to work alongside the man in the tobacco field, hoeing, topping and suckering the plants. Husbands and wives relied heavily on each other. Women were accepted more as partners than as inferiors.
On the smaller plantations, women typically milked the cow, made cheese and butter, fed the chickens, gathered eggs, planted and tended the kitchen garden, and made clothes. Men would do the butchering and smoking of the meat. Corn had to be ground by mortar and pestle. Wives would sometimes share the chore but after exhaustion, it would be completed by young men or servants.
The typical Maryland planter lived in a timber-frame house with only one or two rooms. The roofs were wooden as well, typically with shingles, sometimes with boards. A chimney typically sat at one end of the building. Houses were surrounded by various outbuildings which served as storage sheds or summer kitchens. The green boards that enclosed the houses shrank as they dried. The wind would rip through the houses in the winter, making it difficult to keep warm. The colonists were constantly plugging the gaps with clay. With good tobacco crops and subsequent income, bricks and window glass were sometimes purchased, although most did without. Furnishings were made from rough wool and bedclothes. Furniture was hand-made as were utensils. Children often slept in a loft overhead.
The upper third of society lived in houses with more than three rooms. Those who were extremely wealthy could afford to build houses of ten or twelve rooms. Overall, the houses were small and inconspicuous. Being made of green wood meant frequent repairs. They were inexpensive to build so when a house was no longer inhabitable, the occupants would "throw it away" and build a new one.
Although the diets of the planters were monotonous, food was plentiful. The main staple of the colonists' diets was corn. It was cooked as "hominy" or "pone." Beef and pork made up the remainder of the daily diet. In the spring, milk was available with a few planters storing it by making cheese or butter. In season, there were also fruits and vegetables as well as fish and game. Mild alcoholic cider was also consumed. An insufficient variety of foods resulted in nutritional deficiencies and subsequent death for many.
By the 1660's, the age of the yeoman planter was coming to a close. The social structure remained somewhat stable but the settlement was no longer to be characterized as Euro-American predominately due to changes in the labor force. As the population in Maryland began to decline, increased wages in England promised greater opportunities, Pennsylvania opened, the Carolinas were experiencing rapid development, and growth along the tobacco coast prompted greater competition, there became a labor shortage in Maryland.
Indentured servants became free and masters of their own small plantations. Planters began to purchase slaves to help them work their farms. Slavery was typically equated with "blacks."
Little is known "about the lives of blacks in the Chesapeake colonies during the early and middle decades in the seventeenth century." It is believed that approximately 20 Africans arrived in Port Comfort in late August 1619 on a Dutch ship and that by the 1650's the numbers had grown between 300-400. It is assumed that they probably arrived in small groups, particularly during intense Dutch trade activity in the 1640's and 1650's. The origins of slaves were diverse, coming from Africa, by way of England, from the British Caribbean, and a substantial number from Spanish and Portuguese colonies.
Evidence of how slaves were viewed by Europeans in society is too sparse to draw firm conclusions. Although there were places along the Bay where English colonists and African-Americans resided congenially side-by-side as near equals, it is certain that most Africans were slaves and most Europeans assumed that this arrangement was appropriate for them. A lengthy debate over the lives of slaves at this time has resulted in two conclusions. First, there was considerable ambiguity as to the legal status of slaves during the first half of the seventeenth century. It is speculated that all "blacks" probably arrived as slaves but that some were freed and all enjoyed rights that slaves in other states did not. It was not inconceivable to think of an interracial society in which "blacks" would be considered as something other than slaves. Africans were able to become assimilated into the colonies by learning English, becoming Christians, and mastering work routines of the Europeans.
Life for slaves changed drastically in the 1660's as a result of legislation in both Maryland and Virginia. As European servants became scarce and expensive, and subsequently as African labor dominated the labor force, a caste system came into effect, sealing the fate of slaves and removing opportunities for freedom and advancement. By law, slaves, with the exception of those entering the Eastern Shore, entered the colonies as slaves for life. Even if they were freed, there were significant declines in their freedom, leaving them nothing more than slaves without masters.
Slaves who arrived in Maryland in the 1670's would be slaves for life. They would face a harsh environment in which they were subject to volatile diseases, a shortage of women resulting in low reproduction, abusive masters, isolation from other Africans, and restriction of mobility. Regardless, they eventually improved their lives and by the 1720's, there were enough native-born African-Americans in Maryland to create its own slave population. From this grew a distinctive American culture for Africans.
Political and Religious Upheaval in St. Mary's
Periods of political and religious turmoil arose repeatedly in the colony. Soon following the initial settlement in Maryland, William Claiborne, who had overseen the settlement of Kent Island in the Chesapeake Bay in 1631 for the purpose of trade with the Indians, along with Protestants from Virginia and England, refused to recognize Lord Baltimore and his Catholic government. Claiborne brought charges against Baltimore in Parliament resulting in the invitation to four of five hundred Puritans who had been living in Virginia to reside in Maryland. They were promised political and religious freedom. The famous Maryland Act concerning Religion was passed to preserve the wide toleration of religion on which the Maryland settlement was based.
In 1654, the Puritans overthrew the power of Lord Baltimore and controlled the colony until 1658. At that time, they agreed to relinquish power to the second Lord Baltimore who promised them that he would enforce a law restricting the privileges of Anglicans and Roman Catholics.
Significant changes occurred in the colony after William and Mary became England's king and queen in 1688. John Coode, who lived near the Wicomico River in St. Mary's, was looking "to raise mutiny in Maryland." In 1689, Coode formed a Protestant Association, seized the government of Maryland, its State House and records, and prohibited any ship from leaving St. Mary's for England. He charged that the Catholics and the Indians were planning to massacre the Protestants. His falsehoods were believed by William and Mary who, in 1691, commissioned Lionel Copley to take control of the province as the first royal governor of Maryland. This allowed England to rule Maryland for the next 24 years.
SOURCE: "The Society of the Ark and Dove"
The Society of The Ark and The Dove was founded in 1910 to perpetuate the memory of the first families of Maryland and to provide opportunities for fellowship for all those who trace their descent from Lord Baltimore and from those who came on the Ark and the Dove in 1634 to settle the proprietary province of Maryland. The society also encourages research in early Maryland history and promotes its dissemination by enlisting knowledgeable speakers for its assemblies and by contributing to the support of such appropriate institutions as St. Clement's Island-Potomac River Museum, Historic St. Mary's City Foundation and the Maryland Historical Society.
Thomas Price came to America as a indenturd servant. It appears that when the expedition arrived in Virginia, Thomas tried to stay in Virginia, possibly to avoid his indentureship as a servant (this is pure speculation on why he attempted to stay in Virginia), and was later transported to Maryland.
The following information was prepared by Walt Pollock .
Thomas PriceMemorandum - Went clear away from the "Dove" in Virginia, November 22, 1634.
"that the Master is to have the transportation of a Boy free". "A privilege worth six shillings."
SOURCE: Warrants Lib 1, page 25, 73 Lib. A.B.H. page 82.
Maryland Historical Society Magazine Vol 1, No 4. Page 353 :
Maryland Historical Society Magazine Vol 4, No 3, page 258. 1909.
Also from "Side Lites on Maryland History" by Richardson, page 414:
"Thomas Pasmore came into the province from Virginia in the year 1634 and demanded land for transporting two men servants called Thomas Price and Richard Williams in the year 1634".
Thomas Price --The Society's list, proves to be one of men transported in the year 1634 by Thomas Passmore, evidently from Virginia.
SOURCE:Liber A.B.H., folio 82, Page 417
Thomas Price married Elizabeth Phillips, daughter of Robert Phillips and Elizabeth (Unknown).
Elizabeth Phillips was born about 1613 in Montague, Somerset, England. Shortly after arriving in Maryland, Thomas and Elizabeth married in Calvert County and had the following children:
Thomas Price II born March 1635, Calvert County, Maryland
John Price born about 1634 in Calvert County, Maryland
William Price born about 1639 in Saint Marys County,Maryland, died 1729
Robert Price born about 1641 in Saint Marys County, Maryland,
Edward Price born
More About Thomas Price and Elizabeth Phillips:
Marriage: Abt. 1634, Calvert County, Maryland.1492, 1493
Children of Thomas Price and Elizabeth Phillips are:
- +Thomas Price Jr., b. Abt. 1635, Saint Mary's County, Maryland1494, 1495, d. August 23, 1703, Calvert County, Maryland1496, 1497.