Samuel Durham was born Abt. 1683 in ?, and died 23 November 1735 in St. Paul's Parrish, Stafford, VA93.He married Mary Riggan on 14 December 1705 in Charles County, MD94, daughter of James Riggin, Sr and Joan. Notes for Samuel Durham: 4/28/96 :Attempting to locate origins of Samuel Durham * CD#136 MD, Pre-1790 Census, Baltimore County, MD 1699 Earliest Durham listing The following Durhams are listed for Baltimore: James, John, Samuel.....N Side Gunpowder Hundred * CD#136 MD, Pre-1790 Census,Baltimore County, MD 1700 The folowing Durhams are listed for Baltimore: Christopher Durham, S Side Patapsco Run John Durham, N Side Gunpowder Hundred Samuel Durham, N Side Gunpowder Hundred William Durham, S Side Patapsco Run * CD#136 MD Pre-1790 Census, Baltimore, MD 1702 and 1703 The following Durhams are listed for Baltimore: James, John, Samuel (same locations as above) * CD#136 MD Pre-1790 Census, Baltimore, MD 1704 The following Durhams are listed for Baltimore: James & John, N Side Gunpowder Hundred Richard, Elk Ridge Hundred (Samuel is not listed) * CD#136 MD Pre-1790 Census, Baltimore, MD 1705 and 1706 The following Durhams are listed for Baltimore: James & John, N Side Gunpowder Hundred (Samuel is not listed) * CD#136 VA Pre-1790 Census, Virginia 1723 Samuel Durham appears on the 1723 Rental Rolls for Stafford, VA Ideas: *Samuel's DOB is listed as "about 1693". This would place him at being only 17at the time of his marriage and William's birth. He would have been too youngto appear on the Rental Rolls listed above for 1699. This suggests instead thatSamuel was born about 1683-1686 or that he is not the Samuel listed on the Rental Rolls for Baltimore. *Assuming that this is the same Samuel, the Census listings above suggestthat Samuel Durham was a resident of Baltimore County, MD between 1699and 1703. *Records in the LDS Ancestral and IGI files indicate that Samuel's marriage toMary Riggan took place in Charles County, MD about 1710 placing him in the correct state (MD). *LDS records list their son William Durham as being born in Stafford County, VA about 1710 suggesting that during the year first year of their marriage, the newlyweds moved to VA. *Samuel Durham died in St. Paul's Parrish, Stafford, VA in 1735. 6/16/96: There is mention in the notes written by Kenneth Durham (provided to me by AOL Contact MDurhamJr :Marshall Durham) that Samuel might be related to the Matthew Durham mentioned in Kenneth's papers. 6/22/96: Rec'd documents from the Sumner County Archives: The Durham Family of Sumner County, TN, researched and compliled by Shirley Wilson, CG. Index to the Loose Records of Sumner County. Will Abstracts of Sumner County. The appropriation of these documents has proven the Warren County connection between Thomas Durham (b1791) and William Durham, Jr and hense to William Durham Sr and Samuel Durham. Unfortunately, the Durham family history prior to Samuel Durham is clouded in mystery and name changes according to Sumner genealogist Shirley Wilson. Ms Wilson states that she examined documents and confirmed relationships between the Durham, Riggan, Colclough and Shearin families. She also examined documents provided to the Sumner County Archives by Sue Senter. In addition she located The Colclough Family written by George Dewey Colclough in 1969 which includes information on the Durham Family of Warren County, NC. "Very little is known about Samuel Durham. He was probably born about 1680. On January 20, 1704 Samuel Durham along with John Rigon and Joseph Luvell witnessed the will of William Hungerford in Charles County, MD (Will Book2:248). No deed or wills in the Durham name were indexed in Charles County. It is significant to note that Nanjemoy, also known as Durham Parrish, was established in Charles County, MD abt1692 or 1693. In 1696 the area included 175 tithables. The Colclough Family states that Samuel Durham's wife was Mary Riggan and that they lived in Stafford County, VA. Ms Senter confirmed this information and reported that Mary Riggan was the step-daughter of Charles Wood of Charles County, MD. It was reported that Charles Wood gave Samuel and Mary (Riggan) Durham 200 acres of land in Stafford County, Virginia in 1705. This info seems to be partially accurate. In 1705, one John Wood Sr of Charles County, MD executed a number of deeds to his children for land in Stafford County, VA (Stafford County Deed Book 1699-1709, pp320-324). John had purchased a tract of land in Stafford 2960 acres on the branches of Pooles Run & Neighapasco from Henry Walker whose patent he renewed (patent bearing date 13 March 1695). On 14 Dec 1705 John Wood Sr deeded 200 acres of land on the branches of Pooles Run and Neighapasco, which was identified as part of a 2960 acre patent (Embrey's Index Stafford County Book L-Z:323) to Samuel Durham "for diverse good causes but more especially in consideration that Samuel Durham married Mary Riging who was my daughter in law . . .and for the natural affection that I bear her." This deed was registered on 10 April 1706. John Wood left his natural sons and daughters 400 acres, so it would appears that there was no mistake in the deed. Mary Riggin is not the natural daughter of John Wood. Whether she is a daughter-in-law or astep-daughter remains undetermined. The use of the term daughter-in-law during that time frame could have applied to any number of relationships. Although Samuel and Mary reportedly lived in Prince William and Fauquier Counties, their estate was appraised in Stafford County, VA (Will Book M: 191-2) on 10 Feb 1735. Mary Durham, Samuel's widow administered the estae (M:195-6) The Mormon IGI lists a number of children born to Samuel and Mary Durham in Stafford County, VA, but William is NOT among them. Reported children of Samuel and Mary (Riggan) Durham, those with exact birth dates are established by church records and were born in Stafford County, St. Paul's Parrish, VA: i.Mealy, b. 20 March 1716 (this is a male - could it be Matthew found in 1766 Bute County, NC tax list? ii.Sarah, b. 13 October 1717. iii.William, b. circa 1720 iv.Edward, b. 2 September 1725. v.Frances, b. 24 February 1727." 12-28-96 Source: Family Tree Maker's Family Tree Archives World Family Tree CD Volume 5, pre-1600 to Present. Tree#0473 "Samuel had an inventory registered in Stafford County, VA in 1735. Residences: Charles County, MD Prince William County, VA, Neabscoe River By 1723-c1735 Stafford County, VA, Overwharton Parrish, 200 acres Between branches of Pooles Run and Neighapesco, Land formerley owned by Henry Wlaker; a marriage gift by John Wood, Mary's stepfather. Samuel's som, William, of Bute County, NC sold 1000 acres of this land in 1775. (From the Durhams Before 1776-1976, by Lettie Durham Moore and Beulah Catherine Campbell). Sources: St. Paul's Parrish Registry 1715-1798 Emigrants to Maryland: Mary, Transported 1658 (LIBER Q, FOLIO 18) Richard, Transported 1659 (LIBER 6, FOLIO 159) John, Service 1673, Baltimore (LIBER 17, FOLIO 512) Index of Maryland Colonial Wills: John, 1695, Balt. Co. (Book 7 page123) Alice, 1700, Cal. Co. (Book 11 page 72) Samuel, 1703/04, Balt. Co. (Book 3, page15) Samuel, 1772, Balt. Co. (Book39, page16)" 4-5-97 Source: Stafford County, VA Deed Book M pp.191-192 In obedience to an order of Court dated 10th February 1735/6 We the subscribers . . .appraised the estate of Samuel Durham deced as followeth ... items listed and valued ..Edw Humston, Thomas Bunbury, William Bunbury At a court held March 9th 1735/6 inventory entered into record. pp195-196The estate of Samuel DerhamDr. To funeral expenses, paid mr Phillip Alexander, paid Colo. Fitzhugh and Mr Phillip Alexander for and execution which they were security for my husband. To Doctor Turner, paid Mrs. Colclough, Samuel Kelley's estate . . . At a Court held for Stafford County 13th April 1736 MARY DERHAM Admx of SAMUEL DERHAM Deced exhibited this account . . .admitted to record & the tobacco therein mentioned is valued by the court at 13 sh p ct. p.224 1736. The estate of Samuel DURHAM to paid Sarah Carver by order of Fowke, To clerks note Durham against Taylor . . . Errors exceptedMary Durham At a court held for Stafford County Novr 9th 1736 Mary Durham presented her account against Estate of Samuel Durham deced . .. admitted to record and the tobacco valued at 10s p ct. p244 Samuel Kelly for schooling and boarding 15 months. errors exceptedp Mary Durham At a court held for Stafford County Novr 9th 1736 Mary Durham made oath to the within account against Sam'l Kelly . . . admitted to record and the tobacco valued at 10 p ct. Source: The Register of Overwharton Parish Stafford County Virginia 1723-1758 and Sundry Historical and Genealogical Notes Compiled and Published by George Harrison Sanford King A Quit Rental Role for 1723 Samuel Durham100 acres 8-12--98 Source: AOL Contact LuAnn Powers [[Information reported by Rebekah Senter of Nashville, TN as reported by J. Thomas Durham of Gallatin, TN - attorney and Senator of TN]]] As with many family histories, the truth sometimes gets bogged down by a little bit of mystery and stories told from one mouth to another become an alteration of the truth. It's like the old parlor game of telling a secret to the person sitting next to you in a group of friends gathered in a circle. By the time the secret comes back to your ears, it rarely resembles the words that left your mouth. The Durham Family of Sumner County, TN can trace its roots to Samuel Durham of MD and VA. Unfortunately, from there the ancestral line becomes a little cloudy. Oral family tradition has given us the following information on Samuel and his ancestors: Samuel was one of 3 brothers who came to America from Durhamshire in England. At the time, their name was not Durham, but Duncan. Their beloved city of Durham had been annexed by the English during the time of the War of the Roses. Scotsmen at heart, refusing to accept English subjugation, these three brothers set sail for the American colonies to claim a new life. Such was their love of Durham, such was their hatred of the English oppression, that they changed their name from Duncan to Durham. [[[[ NOTES: There is no proof of any of this information other than the writings of Senator Durham of Gallatin. Questions which must be answered in order to pursue this information: 1) What years did the War of the Roses occur? 2) Geographically, what is the location of the city of Durham? 3) Is it now in Scotland or England? Was it actually "annexed" by the English? 4) Was Samuel born in ENG/MD/VA? Who are Samuel Durham's brothers? If there were 2 other men who changed their name to Durham, where did they go when they arrived in the colonies? Is Samuel even of the correct generation coming to the American colonies? 5) Is there any emigration information for men by the name of Duncan sailing into MD/VA area during the appropriate period of Samuel Durham's life? 6) Historically, are there Duncans in Durham, Scotland? If so, what genealogical ancestral lines are there? Findings: 1) The War of the Roses, the struggle for supremacy of the English throne between the Houses of York and Lancaster occurred between 1455-1485, far too long before Samuel Durham's birth to be the driving force for his family to move to America. 2&3) The city & county of Durham are located in the northeastern section of England in the region of Northumbria. It is actually located in the southern part of Northumbria. According to The Eyewitness Travel Guide on Great Britain, the City of Durham was "built on Island Hill or "Dunholm" in 995. This Rocky penninsula which defies the course of the River Wear's route to the sea, was chosen as the last resting place for the remains of Saint Cuthbert." Thus, Durham is over 1000 years old. The Internet provided more detailed information on the City & County of Durham as well as the History of Durham and Northumberland. Today, the "City of Durham is distant 256 miles NNW from London and 132 SSE from Edinburgh. It contains 7 parishes, the townships of Crossgate, Elvet (part of), the extra-parochial places, with the rights of townships, of Castle Precincts, Bailey North, Bailey South, Durham College, Gilligate, Magdalen Place and St. Nicholas, and a barony and a borough." "The older portion of the city occupies a high rocky penninsula, formed by the river Wear; and its situation and figure is so peculiar - in connection also with its historical associations - as to have occasioned its being emphatically called the 'English Zion'. The ancient area of Northumbria included Durham and withstood many invasions by the Vikings. The Vikings occupied a vast area centering upon York. "By the time the monks had settled at Durham (c995), the Vikings were not so great an enemy as the Scots." The above information indicates that from its very beginnings, Durham was an ENGLISH settlement, not Scottish. Although the Durham City History website provided this important information, the details needed to suggest why the Duncan/Durham brothers would come to America was still lacking. The best historical-related site that I found was that of David Simpson, a historical writer whose previously published works had been converted to web pages at the site: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/north_east_england_history_page/ This wonderful website provides a detailed chronology of the City of Durham. The examination of these chronicles provides some insight into the story of our Duncan/Durham ancestors. Here are a few Durham City highlights: 995 City of Durham founded by Monks of St Cuthbert 1038 "King Duncan of Scotland has beseiged Durham City but the attack hasbeen repelled. Duncan was heavily defeated and has fled to Scotland.The attack on Durham is linked with the Scottish desire to make NorthEastern England a part of Scotland." 1072 William the Conqueror orders Earl Waltheof of Northumbria to build a castleat Durham City as defensive stronghold against the Scots. 1075 The Bishop of Durham becomes a religious & political role which becomesknown as a Prince-Bishop. 1136 King Stephan of England and David King of Scotland signed a treaty atDurham in an attempt to settle land disputes. King Stephen will keepthe region of Northumberland which has been claimed by the Scots for many years. 1589 Plague ravages the north, including Durham 1603 James VI King of Scotland newly appointed as James I of England visitedDurham. 1604 Last recorded incidence of plague in Durham 1633 King Charles I visits Durham 1640 An English army was heavily defeated by Scottish covenanters at the Battleof Newburn on Tyne on Aug 28. Newcastle has been fully occupied bythe Scots who have also seized the City and Castle of Durham. 1641 The Scots have disbanded from their occupation of Durham and other partsof the north after receiving 60,000 pounds from King Charles. 1650 March. Oliver Cromwell visits Durham. 1650 September. Following the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar, overthree thousand Scottish captives have been imprisoned in DurhamCastle. 1660 Restoration of King Charles II to the English throne also restores power tothe Bishopric of Durham which had been removed from politicalinfluence during Cromwelian rule. 1682 A great flood in the River Wear at Durham 1683-1711 Nothing in the way of significant events is chronicled Samuel Durham's estimated birthdate of "about 1683" originates from his wife's known 1683 birthdate; which means he was most likely born between 1660-1680. Assuming that family tradition is correct and that Samuel was one of 3 brothers who left the City of Durham for the American Colonies and that they were Scotsmen under English rule, the events which prompted them to come to the American Colonies occurred during his lifetime and before his 1705 marriage in Charles County, MD marriage to Mary Riggin. The most significant events in the life of Samuel's parents, especially in light of the fact that it is believed the Duncan/Durhams were of Scot origin, would be the 1640-1641 occupation of Durham by the Scots. In 1641, the Scots disbanded their occupation after receiving payment from King Charles I. In 1645 Oliver Cromwell came to power as Lord Protector of England. His forces invaded Scotland in 1650, defeating Charles II and the royalist Scots. King Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660. No politically significant events are recorded for the City of Durham between 1660 and 1705, which is the time period of greatest significance for the removal of Samuel Durham from England. This suggests that perhaps it was his father & uncles who came to America rather than himself and his brothers. 4)Who are Samuel Durham's brothers? If there were 2 brothers who changed their name to Durham, where did they go when they arrived in the colonies? * CD#136 MD, Pre-1790 Census, Baltimore County, MD 1699 Earliest Durham listing The following Durhams are listed for Baltimore: James, John, Samuel.....N Side Gunpowder Hundred [[[Notes: John, James and Samuel are also listed together for 1702, and 1703. In 1700, only John & Samuel are a listed for Gunpowder Hundred while 2 other Durhams are in another area of Baltimore. No listing that year for James. In 1701 only James & John are listed. No Samuel. In 1704, 1705 & 1706 James & John are listed, no Samuel.If we follow the family tradition, this suggests that James, John and Samuel Durham were the 3 brothers who came to America. Baltimore, Md was one of the larger entry points for immigrants, so that wouldalso make sense. The fact that, for the most part, all three men were living within the same area of Baltimore, namely the Northside Gunpowder Hundred section, suggests that they were family. The last year that Samuel is listed for Northside Gunpowder Hundred is 1703, afterwhich only John & James are listed for the next 3 years. We know that Samuel married in Charles County, MD in 1705 so it is possible that this is our Samuel Durham and that he moved there after 1703. There are no Maryland Durham entries from this source between 1706-1739.]]] In searching through the Family Tree Maker Family Archives, World Family Tree CDs, some additional information can be found which conflicts with the above theory on James, John & Samuel. Since Durham census lists are found only in Baltimore, it is likely that these are the same individuals found listed in the WFT CDs: WFT CD#05, Tree#2328: John Durham (b.~1630-1662) died about 1695 in Baltimore, MD. He married Jane____(nee jnknown) who died in Baltimore, MD bef 30 May 1695. Listed children are: Samuel (no decendants listed); John (died bef 2 Dec 1709), Francis, Eliza and Mary [[Note that there are 3 brothers in this family including one named Samuel of whom nothing else is listed]]. John is the father of a Samuel Durham b in 1697 in Baltimore, died in 1772 in Harford, MD and married an Eleanor Smithson in Harford in 1723. WFT CD#7, Tree#3943: This tree appears to be similar to the one above, but contains some errors. John Durham is listed as being born in England and dying in Baltimore on 30 May 1695. Jane is listed as his wife. However, the only child listed for the family is Samuel Durham, Sr who was born 30 Mar 1697, far too late to be the child of the man who died in May of 1695. This Samuel is listed as being born in Durham, England; marrying Eleanor Smithson in St. John's Parish, Baltimore, MD and dying September 1772 in Baltimore, MD. Without any supporting evidence. the Tree#2328 appears to be more accurate. The marriage location information for St. Paul's Parish in Baltimore is correct as corroborated by information in the FTM Family Archives CD#178, Church Records of Maryland and Deleware. WFT#19 Tree#____: A single marriage within a family file of the Enloes Family of Baltimore, MD. Margaret, d/o Hendrick Enloes, married James Durham on 5 October 1709. Based on the names & dates in the 2 Durham Trees above, this James Durham could be unrelated, another child of John & Jane or a cousin. WFT#16 Tree#2184: Listing for descendants of Samuel Durham, born est. 1624-1653 who died in Maryland in 1703 [[Same year Samuel Durham drops off of the census listings with James & John!]] Sameul's wife is not listed, but he has a son named James, born about 1675, married Mary Staley about 1695 and died in 1725 in Maryland. Mary Staley was born in 1677 in Baltimore, MD. [[[Notes: The information contained within these CDs is by no means conclusive evidence as to the family ties of our SAMUEL DURHAM. There is nothing here to indicate any Duncan/Durham connection. No Samuel Duncans are listed in the MD census. No Durhams are listed in the Charles County pre- 1790 Census. What we do have is an interesting possibility which needs some in-depth research. Could our Samuel Durham be the son of John & Jane Durham? Or was that Samuel the man who died in 1703? And since we do know that a Samuel Durham died in 1703, it seems likely that this is the reason that he no longer appeared on the census listings with John & James after that date. This would suggest that our Samuel was NOT the man listed with John & James. And if that is true, then the identity of Samuel and his 2 brothers remains a mystery.]]] 5) No emigration information is found within the WFT CDs r/t our Durhams. 6) Historically, are there Duncans in Durham, Scotland? If so, what genealogical ancestral lines are there? [[[[I'm still working on finding factual information on this one. A couple of the websites listed some common surnames for the City of Durham, but Duncan was not one of them. According to certified genealogist Shirley Wilson in her published paper, THE DURHAM FAMILY OF SUMNER Co., TN, "A preliminary search into the early records of the County of Durham revealed that there were few Durham Families there, but many Duncan and Coldcleugh families. Colclough family members intermarried with the Durhams in Warren County, North Carolina and in Sumner County, Tennessee and that surname appears to be a spelling variant of Coldcleugh."]]]] 2-28-99 Notes: Thus far, I have found no indications as to Samuel Durham's origins. Did he come straight from England or was he somehow linked to the family of John Durham of Baltimore, MD? Samuel does appear to be a family name within that group. The fact that Samuel & his bride Mary Regon/Riggan married in Charles County, MD and that Mary's family was from Nanjemoy, suggests that they may have married in the Old (then new) Durham Church in Durham Parish which was established in 1692. Unknown if there is any connection between the Durham Parish name and the Durham surname. More About Samuel Durham and Mary Riggan: Marriage: 14 December 1705, Charles County, MD.94 Children of Samuel Durham and Mary Riggan are:
+William Durham, Sr, b. Bet. 1706 - 1710, St. Paul's Parish, Stafford, VA, d. 1793, Warren County, NC.