GALSSMAKERS'FAMILIES & NOBILITY
The history of the Henzellfamily in France and the migration to England can be found in severalpublications dealing with the manufacture of glass in Europe and theintroduction of glassmaking to England in the last quarter of the sixteenthcentury.
The material detailed here hasbeen summarized from several sources in an attempt to draw together the manyreferences into one story. Mention of the early history of the Henzey, Tytteryand Tyzack (De Hennezel, De Thitery and Du Thisac) families is given in ChenayeDesbois's "Dictionary of the Nobles of France", as follows:
HENNEZEL ‑"Original Nobility of the Kingdom of Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) of which theprincipal branch has been established in Lorraine for about four centuries. Ithas enjoyed, during that time; the first honors of the Provence, and has allieditself with the houses of the ancient aristocracy and assisted at the assizes.Several branches are actually spread in Champagne and other provinces of theKingdom. Its luster is everywhere constantly maintained by great alliances, thepossession of fifes and military dignities."
Glassmaking in France was considered agentleman's occupation in which even noblemen might take part without loss ofdignity, and Royal privileges were looked on as a patent of nobility. The firstof this family, of whom any record is given by Desbois, is
1. Henry Hennezel who married Isabeau D'Esche, 30thMay, 1392. He was possessed of a manor and grounds of Bonvillet and Belruptnear Darney in the Vosges.
2. Henry DeHennezel, who was maitre d'hotel to Charles Duke of Lorraine. He was summonedto the assizes at Nancey in 1417.
3. Jean (Jehan)De Hennezel, married Damoiselle Beatrix de Braizey in 1446. He was named in thecharter of glassmakers (1448); founded the village of Hennezel; believed to bethe first of this family to practice glassmaking. Besides Didier he had twoother sons Claude and Jehan. Claude had a son, posterity unknown.
‑ Didier DeHennezel's first marriage to Isabelle de Simony produced three childrenGuillaume, Nicholas and Christophe.
‑Guliiame's son married Claudine de Montague (1538). This marriage produced thefollowing family:
‑ Jacques,founder of the branch of LASYBILLE (Lorraine) extinct on the death of Nicholasin 1875, Jacques great great grandson Charles founded the branch of FRANCOGNEY,extinct since 1832 and his sons Charles and Leopold founded the branches ofFRANCOGNEY LA PILLE and GEMMELACOURT respectively. Charles Francois assumed thetitle of Comte de Hennezel when the BEAUJEU branch (see below) became extinct.
‑ Antioneand Pierre, posterity unknown.
- Humbert,founder of the branch of THOLOY, extinct on the death of Charles Louis Felix in1866. Humbert's grandsons Nicholas and Pierre Louis founded the branch ofBEAUMONT (posterity unknown) and of BEAUJEU,(his grandson being created a Count(now extinct).
‑ Josue,posterity unknown.
‑Christopher, founder of the branch of ORMOIS of which branch Louis CharlesFrancois was made Count de Hennezel d'Ormois, great grandfather of the presentCount from whose book this genealogy has been prepared.
‑ Thiebaut,founder of the branch of ATTIGNEVILLE of which branch Charles Nicholas Antoine1747‑1833 was created Baron de Hennezel, title extinct since 1882.
‑ Nicholasde Hennezel, founder of the branch of VIOMENIL‑ESSERT still in being(Switzerland) Nicholas' great grandson founded the branch of ST.MARTIN ROVERY(Switzerland), Nicholas grandson Hector founded the branch of CHAMPGINY,believed to be extinct. Hectors great great grandsons Remy Joseph and ClaudeFrancois founded the branches of BAZOILLES (believed extinct since 1759) andBAZOILLES BELRUPT (extinct since 1683) respectively.
‑Christophe de Hennezel married Catherine de Tyzac. He resided in 1551 at Tourchon and died prior to 1581.
‑ Isaac,may have been the direct ancestor of Isaac Henza who resided in Newcastle,England. This assumption, whilst reasonable must be accepted with reservationfor proof is needed before any definite connection can be made to the Henzellfamily residing in Newcastle from the early seventeenth century.
Apart from Isaacthere was Samuel and Jehan (posterity unknown).
‑ Adam andson Jeremie (posterity unknown).
‑ Didier deHennezel, founder of the branch of LA TOCHERE (extinct since 1794). Didier'sgrandsons' Clement and Christophe founded the branches of AVRECOURT‑BEAUPRE(extinct since 1870) and RANGUILLY respectively.
‑ Claude deHennezel who had issue Francois (posterity unknown).
‑ Francoisde Hennezel (posterity unknown).
To understand thelife lead by families such as the Henzells in the period 1400 to 1800 somediscussion of the glassmaking trade could be of interest. An informativediscussion can be found in a book by Ada Polak.The book traces the history of glassmaking throughout England and Europe.Several references are made to the Hennezel, Thiétry and Biseval families.
Glass until the timeof the industrial revolution was made from and worked exclusively withmaterials, which in their simplest form were easily accessible in many places.The basic materials required were sand, plants to burn for ash, lime to givestability, clay for pots, sandstone for furnaces, wood, coal or peat for fuel.Good sand was available in the Lorraine and Bohemia. The early Englishglassmakers in the Sussex Weald made do with local sand, but it did not makevery good glass.
Guttery in his book"From Broad‑glass to Cut Crystal",states that the de Hennezel, de Thiétry and du Thisac families had been"gentlemen, tramps and broad‑glass makers" and from the earlyfifteenth century when they left the woods of Bohemia and began their long trekto the Darney Forest in the Vosges. This statement conflicts with other recordthat state that the families were already established in the late fourteenthcentury. The supply of fuel dictated the sites of the furnaces and whenexhausted they moved to another site. The Vosges forests seemed to provide an inexhaustiblesupply.
Glassmaking appearsto have originated in the Middle East and gradually moved to the West viaItaly. Forest glassworks started to appear in the 13th century in the form ofmobile workshops. Workers moved from place to place as fuel supplies wereexhausted. Good areas for the glassmakers were Lorraine, Thurngar, Hessen andthe Bohemian Forest.
France was thecentre of the manufacture of flat glass for use in buildings. In the MiddleAges the Lorraine was the centre of this industry.
The glasshouserequired a large staff of qualified workmen of many different skills. The headof the enterprise was the glass‑house master, known in French as"maitre verrier". He knew the secrets of glassmaking and itsconstitution and was responsible for mixing the batch. He planned the work‑programfor each day, decided what was to be made in what quantities, and divided themen into teams. His duties were once defined to:
"keep awatchful eye on the furnaces and to see that all that is necessary to bring andkeep a furnace and glass‑house in good order was available: wood forfuel, clay for pots, stone for furnaces, ash and other materials, and take carethat nothing is missing as great trouble can ensue; he shall see that hard‑workingjourneymen are retained, and shall keep them in order, also see that nobodysells or takes home his work for the week, but make sure that everyone eachweek gives what he has done to the glass‑house clerk."
The glass‑housemaster, seems normally to have risen from the ranks of glassmakers, and couldwhen necessary work alongside his men. He occupied a very high position in thehierarchy of the glassmaking world. He lived in a house of his own, whileglassmakers lived in rows of tenement houses. He took important decisions aboutfinance and other matters that concerned them all; he negotiated withlandlords, entrepreneurs and management; in some cases he actually owned theglasshouse. Among the glassmakers his authority was great; he settled disputesamong them, as well as meting out reprimands and punishments. At best he was adignified and paternal figure, whose authority men accepted without question ordemur.
Before the 18thcentury window glass was a luxury. Only the rich could afford to glaze theirwindows. The poor were more likely to use shutters, strips of animal horn oroiled cloth. Windows became bigger as factories began to produce cheaper glassby the crown or cylinder method, but individual panes were small due to thelimitations of these blowing methods.
The Henzell familywere skilled in making flat or window‑glass. Makers of window‑glass,or "grand verre" as the French called it, were in many ways thearistocrats among glassmakers. They could produce flat glass either by blowinga large cylinder, which split along the side and flattened out, or by the crownmethod. Crown glass windowpanes were made by gathering molten glass onto theblowpipe and blowing it into a large sphere. An iron rod known as a pontil wasattached to the sphere opposite to the blowpipe, which was then cracked off.The glass sphere was then re‑heated and spun rapidly to cause it to openout into a slightly concave disc, over a meter in diameter, known as a table.This was separated from the pontil and cooled gradually in the annealing kiln.When cooled it was cut into small panes. Either method required great physicalstrength from the glassblowers (no fewer than eight men were needed to make aNormanby crown), and considerable financial risks were involved in making oneof these, the largest of the glassblowers' products.
The crown or tableof window glass was marked into panes and when cut would produce about a squaremeter of glass. The glass often had a pale greenish tinge and slightimperfections. The point where the pontil was attached, the bullion or 'bull',was regarded as a waste product but sometimes used as a cheaper second. In timethe bullion glass became fashionable as a period detail. The waste around theedge of the crown was either cut into smaller panes or re‑cycled as culletin a new batch.
The Multimediaencyclopedia has a short history of glassmaking, which is quoted below:
Glass was used inEgypt for decorative objects, mainly as a colored glaze on stone or potterybeads, before 3000 BC. The art ofmaking glass was perfected about 1500 BC in Egypt and the Near East. GLASSBLOWING, which was probably discoveredabout 50 BC in Phoenicia, greatly extended the type of objects which could bemade of glass. It also made them easierto fabricate and more transparent. Theart of glassblowing spread rapidly throughout the Roman Empire, while specialcenters of glassmaking were established in Phoenicia, Rome, Egypt, theRhineland, and the Rhone Valley. GLASSWARE became common and relatively inexpensive.
For many centuriesafter the fall of the Roman Empire, glassmaking decreased in importance inWestern Europe, as did many other technologies and arts, and artistic glassalmost disappeared. In Byzantium,however, Greek and Syrian glass centers continued to prosper.
Beginning in the11th century, several new centers of glassmaking arose in Western Europe. In Bohemia,ash from plants (potash, which is high in potassium) was used as a raw materialto make a glass with a lower melting point. The most important European center of glassmaking developed near Venice,where new compositions, colors, forming techniques, and artistic skills weredeveloped. The Venetians addedmanganese, in the form of the mineral pyrolucite, to oxidize iron impurities inglass, clarifying the glass and removing the green or brown tint caused by thereduced state of iron. By adding lead,borate, and more soda to glass they increased its working temperature range andwere able to make more intricate shapes, thinner blown glass, and finerenamels. They also learned to color theglass with special additives. Althoughthe Venetians tried to protect their proprietary knowledge of glassmaking bymaking it illegal for technicians to emigrate, many escaped anyway and spreadthe new techniques throughout Europe. Nevertheless Venetian glass was preeminent in Europe until the 18thcentury.
So‑calledcrystal was developed in England in the late 17th century to compete withVenetian cristallo glass. Purer rawmaterials, oxidation of iron, and addition of lead gave a more transparentglass; this transparency, together with the higher index of refractionresulting from the addition of lead, gave sparkle to faceted cut glass. London became an important center ofglassmaking at this time.
In the 19th centurytechniques of glassmaking advanced rapidly. The scientific community's growingneed for improved optical glass stimulated the development of manufacturingprocesses that would strictly control bubbles, stria, refractive index, andcolor. Michael FARADAY advancedscientific understanding of glass and characterized it as "a solution ofdifferent substances, rather than a strong chemical compound," a view thatis still valid.
Clay pots heated bya wood fire were used to melt glass until the end of the 18th century, whencoal and then oil and gas became the preferred fuel. Pot or batch melting of glass is used today only for specialty,laboratory, and certain optical glasses.
Production of Flat Glass for Windows
Traditionally,window glass was made by hand by either the crown or cylinder process. In the crown process a gob of glass wasblown out and one side of the resulting globe was flattened. A solid iron rod was attached to the flatpart and the blowing pipe detached. Theglobe was then reheated and rotated until it formed a flat disc about one meter(3 feet) in diameter. Panes of glasswere cut from the disc after it was slowly cooled. The part attached to the rod was the "bull's eye,"which can still be seen in some older windows. In the cylinder process the blower made a large cylinder that was thensplit open and flattened. Cylinder glass was also made by machine.
Glassmaking was ahighly exclusive craft, being based on secrets, which were carefully preservedamong members of certain families. Close and easy co‑operation betweenthe members of a working team was of vital importance to successfulglassmaking, and this was most easily assured within a family framework,fathers working with sons, brothers alongside brothers and cousins.
It was a rule that"nobody shall teach glassmaking to anyone whose father has not been knownto glassmaking". The regulations among the glassmakers of Lorraine wereeven more stringent. Here the art of "le grand verre" was permittedto be practiced only by male children of legitimate marriages within thefamilies of Hennezel, Thiétry, Thisac and Biseval. When sons of these familiesentered the craft at the age of twelve they had to swear "on the peril ofthe damnation of their souls and the risk of what part they might have inParadise, not to teach, show, instruct, directly or indirectly, the said nobleart, usage and science of making flat glass" to anyone outside.
In some areas theglassmaking profession carried with it noble rank. Most famous of theglassmakers are "les gentilshommes verriers" of France. The idea of aFrench nobleman being a hard‑working glassmaker seems hard to accept butsome French glassmakers were of noble rank. In the Charter granted by the Dukeof Lorraine to the glassmakers of that area of 1448, they were described as"gens nobles extraits de noble linge".
Some of theprivileges granted to French glassmakers, such as freedom from taxes, were of akind which naturally went with noble rank; the fact they lived on the land,some of them in manorial style, gave an aristocratic appearance to their dailylives. What divided them from the higher grades of nobility was that theyworked for their livelihood by the sweat of their brows and that they leasedtheir land from a landlord against the payment of rent.
Once glassmakingbecame dispersed, family names were held in great respect, and when aContinental glassmaker was engaged by some foreign patron it was a great assetto be a Perrotto from Altare, a Gerner from central Germany or a Hennezel orThizac from Lorraine.
To understand whymany of the glassmaking and other craftsmen left France for England and othercountries a short discussion of French politics and religion of the time isuseful.
The De Hennezels andtheir connections the De Thiétry and Du Thisacs were Huguenots, and were drivento England probably by the first persecution in the second half of thesixteenth century.
The term"Huguenot" was used commonly by 1560's to describe FrenchProtestants. As French Protestants became more closely organised, it becameeven more enmeshed in politics and in sixteenth‑century conditions anymovement which undermined the legally sanctioned Church was bound to causepolitical problems. The Church was vitallyimportant to the State, so an attack on its structure would not be welcomed.The enormous wealth of the Church provided the Crown with taxation revenues anda major source of patronage through which its servants were rewarded.
The Calvinistorganization was becoming stronger and provided a link between provinces, whileCalvinist belief offered a means of binding together the interests of noblemenand artisans. As a result Monarchs found themselves confronted with wholeregions of rebellion, linked by ideology and an organizational structure led bythe ruling class. This helps to explain the bitterness, which existed in Franceleading up to the civil wars.
Protestantpersecution intensified after the edict of Chateaubriand of 1551. Seriousproblems in the Royal family following the death of Henry II and a successionof young Kings, Francis II aged 15 followed by Charles IX aged 9 who wasdominated by his mother the Regent, Catherine de Medici. Henry III (1574‑89)proved unable to win the trust of his subjects, and his reign was notable forits intrigue, assassination and bloodshed.
The peace of Chateau‑Camresis(1559) brought about mainly by economic exhaustion of European powers engagedin war, bought some lasting peace, but rising prices put pressure on thepopulation and nobility who had spent years fighting for the Crown for noreward. The Regent Catherine de Medici and her royal offspring attempted to findreligious agreement between the Catholic and Calvinist leaders. On one handthere were the militant Catholics who controlled most of the army, and on theother Huguenots with their Genevan ties and led by nobles who commandedregional strength. Amongst the most influential were the houses of Guise, inLorraine together with other houses throughout France who had a vested interestin seeing that Crown privilege did not fall into the hands of the opposition.
Catherine hoped fora military stalemate but this was only achieved after the civil war. Neitherside had the strength to dominate. Periods of peace ensued only to be followedby further violence. The Huguenots were guaranteed some protection from themilitary following the Peace of St Germain in 1570 at the end of the third war.This peace was shattered by the Massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572, which beganin Paris and spread to the provinces. The massacre changed Huguenot attitudesand prospects and hit the nobility particularly hard.
These conditions inFrance led to the Huguenot migrations to England from 1520 and especially the1560's and 1570's. This was the period when the first Henzells moved toEngland.
The Huguenots,although a neglected minority, were active over a wide front. They were importantin the development of the arts, crafts and horticulture, in insurance and TheBank of England and in the development of silk, textile, paper and glasswareindustries.
ChenayeDesbois "Dictionary of the Nobles of France", second edition, Vol.8,pages 25-31, published 1774.
Henzelld'Ornois, J.M.F. de. "Gentilbommes verriers de la Haute-Picardie,Nogent-le-Ratvov, Charles-Fontaine, 1933.
Thegenealogy of the Isaac Henzells - a family tree tracing the history of a branchof the Henzell family of Newcastle throughout the 17th, 18th and 19thcenturies.
AdaPolak, GLASS - its makers and its public, Windfield & Nicholson, London.
Guttery,D.R., From Broad-glass to Cut Crystal, A history of the Stoubridge GlassIndustry, Leonard Hill [Books] Ltd., London, 1956.