| || Notes for Jane~ Findlay:|
SUPERIOR KIND OF WOMAN
"A fair haired contender of Scotch descent.Well informed and a superior kind of woman."---"A Reid Family"
>>>>>CONTINUED FROM NOTES FOR ROBERT REID, HUSBAND OF JANE FINDLAY>>>>>
THE SCOTCH-IRISH OR THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA
CHAPTER XXXIII THE SCOTTISH PLANTATION OF DOWN AND ANTRIM
The northeast corner of Ireland had been long held by the Macdonnells, a clan which also peopled the island of Jura, and Cantyre on the mainland of Scotland. We have already seen, from Marshal Bagnal's description of Antrim, that this clan had acquired a foothold in the Route and the Glens some years before the settlement of Montgomery and Hamilton in county Down.
The story has been told at length by the Rev. George Hill in his Macdonnells of Antrim. In a scarce work entitled The Government of Ireland under Sir John Perrott, Knight, etc. (London, 1626, p. 136), the author states that about 1584, "the Deputy received intelligence of the approach of a thousand Scottish islanders, called Redshanks, being of the septs or families of the Cambiles [Campbells', Macconnells [Macdonnells], and Mag-alanes, drawne to invade Ulster by Surleboy,4 one of that nation, who had [p.493 ]usurped, and by power and strong hand, possessed himself of the Mac-quilies' [McQuillans'], and other men's lands in Ulster, called the Glinnes and the Route; meaning to hold that by force, which he had gotten without right, by violence, fraud, and injury."
Some of the details of the conquest of Antrim by the Macdonnells may be learned from the following notes on the Scottish settlement of North Antrim, taken from the MacAdam manuscripts. These notes were made by James Bell, who lived near Ballymoney, county Antrim, about 1850, where he formed a large collection of Irish antiquities, a catalogue of which is given in the MacAdam manuscripts, and many of which may be seen in the Town Hall at Ballymoney. Mr. Bell writes:
The town of Ballymoney is said to be of considerable antiquity, but as no written records of its origin are now known to exist, and very few traditional accounts of its early history are preserved by the inhabitants. little is now known on the subject beyond the recollection of the present generation, who would appear not to be descended from the original or earliest inhabitants, but from strangers, and therefore all the early records and traditions are lost. A battle is said to have been in Ballymoney, at a very early period, between the inhabitants and strangers; and the tradition says that the inhabitants were defeated with great slaughter, the survivors flying to the county of Derry and the Glens of Antrim. The town was burnt down, so that, according to this account, "one might walk on the walls from the head to the foot of the town." The probability is that these strangers were from Scotland, and the reasons for such a supposition are--the Irish langu. age was never remembered to have been spoken or even understood in the town or neighborhood, neither are the names of the inhabitants Irish, but almost all Scotch; and the proprietors of the town and formerly of all the lands in the neighborhood, the Earls of Antrim, are of known Scotch descent.
It has always been admitted that the parts of Scotland opposite to Ulster were invaded or colonized from ireland, and that a constant intercourse, either of friendship, trade, or war, has ever since existed between the two nations, which may in the end have led to the final settlement of the Scotch in that part of the country. A manuscript still in existence, shows that the Scottish clan of MacDonnell, who by an intermarriage, got footing in Ireland, established themselves, by the powerful support they received from Cantyre and the Western Isles, in a tract of country forty miles in length. The people of those days generally followed the fortunes of their chiefs. The greater part of the native Irish who survived these bloody scenes transplanted themselves elsewhere, while the Scots remained possessors of the field; hence the old traditions, language, and customs of the country were gradually lost. In proof of the Scottish origin of the present inhabitants, a short extract is here given from the manuscript above alluded to:--
"About the year 1508, Coll MacDonnell came with a parcel of men from Cantyre to Ireland to assist Tyrconnel against great O'Neill, with whom he was then at war.
"In passing through the Root of the county of Antrim, he was civilly received and hospitably entertained by MacQuillan, who was the lord and master of the Root.
"At that time there was a war between MacQuillan and the men beyond the river Bann; for the custom of this people was to rob from every one, and the strongest party carried it, be it right or wrong.
"On the day when MacDonnelI was taking his departure, MacQuillan, who was not equal in war to his savage neighbors, called together his militia, or Galloglaghs, to revenge his affronts over the Bann, and MacDonnel1, thinking it uncivil not to offer his services that day to MacQuillan, after having been so kindly treated, offered his service in the field.
"MacQuillan was right well pleased with the offer, and, with the Highlanders, went against the enemy; and where there wasa cow taken from MacQuillan's people before, there were two restored back; after which Mac-Quillan and MacDonnell returned with a great prey, and without the loss of a man.
"Winter then drawing nigh, MacQuillan invited MacDonnell to stay with him at his castle until the spring, and to quarter his men up and down the Root. This MacDonnell gladly accepted, and in the meantime seduced Mac-Quillan's daughter and privately married her, on which ground the Scots afterwards founded their claim to MacQuillan's territories.
"The men were quartered two and two through the Root; that is to say, one of MacQuillan's Galloglaghs and a Highlander in every tenant's house. It so happened that the Galloglagh, according to custom, was entitled to a mether of milk as a privilege. This the Highlanders considered an affront, and at length one of them asked his host--'Why do you not give me milk as you give the other?' The Galloglagh immediately made answer--'Would you, a Highland beggar as you are, compare yourself to me or any of Mac-Quillan's Galloglaghs?' A combat ensued, which ended in the death of the Galloglagh. MacQuillan's Galloglaghs immediately assembled to demand satisfaction, and in a council which was held it was agreed that each Gallo-glagh should kill his comrade Highlander by night, and their lord and master with them; but Coll MacDonnell's wife discovered the plot and told it to her husband, so the Highlanders fled in the night time and escaped to Raghery. From this beginning the MacDonnells and MacQuillans entered on a war, and continued to worry each other half a century, till the English power became so superior in Ireland that both parties made an appeal to James I., who had just then ascended the throne of England. James favored his Scotch countrymen, the MacDonnells, to whom he made over by patent four great baronies, including along with other lands, all poor MacQuillan's possessions. However, to save some appearance of justice, he gave to Mac-Quillan a grant of the great Barony of Inisowen, the old territory of O'Dogherty, and sent to him an account of the whole decision by Sir John [Arthur] Chichester.
"MacQuillan was extremely mortified at his ill-success, and very disconsolate at the difficulties which attended the transporting of his poor people over the river Bann and the Lough Foyle, which lay between him and his new territory. The crafty Englishman, taking advantage of his situation, by an offer of some lands which lay nearer his old dominions, persuaded him to cede his title to the Barony of Inisowen; and thus the Chichesters, who afterwards obtained the title of Earls of Donegal, became possessed of this great estate, and honest MacQuillan settled himself on one far inferior.
"One story more [says the MS.] of MacQuillan. The estate he got in exchange for the Barony of Inisowen was called Clanreaghurkie, which was far inadequate to support the old hospitality of the MacQuillans. Bury Oge MacQuillan sold this land to one of Chichester's relations, and having got [the value of] his new granted estate in one bag, was very generous and hospitable as long as the bag lasted; and so was worthy MacQuillan soon exhausted."
These facts may in some measure account for the total absence of everything ancient, or truly Irish, within the town or in the neighborhood of Ballymoney, and indeed in the greater part of the Root of county Antrim.
According to tradition, the ground now occupied by the town of Bally-money comprised two distinct but very small villages; and as the origin of all villages and even towns arose from their connection with some great house or castle, we have evidence of this in the names still attached to the town-parks, those at the north end being called the Castlebarr fields and those at the south end the Castle Crofts. No vestige of either of these castles now remains, nor are they remembered by any person living; neither is there any account or tradition existing with regard to Castlebarre; but the castle at the south end of Ballymoney is said to have been built or inhabited by a person called Stewart. This account is probable, as the person who was agent to the Earl of Antrim about the year 1641 was named Archibald Stewart, and belonged originally to Ballintoy. The last inhabitant of the castle is said to have been a Captain Butler ....
A house of worship for Presbyterians stood at an early period on the site of the present meeting-house of the first Presbyterian congregation, but no records are known to show the date of its erection.5
The chief of the Scoto-Irishmen in Antrim at the beginning of the seventeenth century was Randall Macdonnell. After Tyrone's rebellion, he resolved to throw in his lot with the Government, and turn loyal subject. He persevered in this course, notwithstanding many trials to his loyalty, and as reward he received a grant of the northern half of county Antrim, from Larne to Portrush, and the honor of knighthood. He set himself ardently to the improvement of his lands, "letting out to the natives on the coast, and also to the Scottish settlers, such arable portions of his lands as had been depopulated by the war, for terms varying from 21 to 301 years." These leases seem to have been largely taken advantage of by the Scottish settlers, who allowed the natives to keep the "Glynnes" or Glens--that district so much visited now for its splendid coast scenery--and themselves took possession of the rich land along the river Bann, from Lough Neagh to the town of Coleraine near its mouth. So Macdonnell and his property prospered; and in 1620, when King James raised him to the dignity of Earl of Antrim, the patent conferring the honor, after enumerating the faithful services which Macdonnell had rendered to the Crown, specially mentioned "the fact of his having strenuously exerted himself in settling British subjects on his estates." Thus county Antrim, from north to south, became nearly as Scottish as the portion of county Down north of the Mourne mountains.
NOTES TO CHAPTER XXXIII
1. See Appendix S (The Montgomery Manuscripts and The Hamilton Manuscripts).
2. Additional names are printed in five numbers of Thomas Allen Glenn's American Genealogist for 1899, vol. i..
3. The muster-master was an officer commissioned in each district to discover the number of able-bodied. men therein, together with the available arms possessed by them. He was further required carefully to enroll the men and arms in a book, to be consulted when troops might be needed for active service. From this statement of the author it is evident that a large number of settlers had come with Sir Hugh Montgomery to the Ards during the first four years of his colonization. It is to be regretted that no list of these original settlers can now be found. Among them were several named Orr, who appear to have originally settled in the townlands of BalIyblack and Ballykeel, and were the progenitors of a very numerous connection of this surname throughout the Ards. The earliest recorded deaths in this connection, after their settlement in the Ards, were those of James Orr of Ballyblack, who died in the year 1627, and Janet McClement, his wife, who died in 1636. The descendants, male and female, of this worthy couple were very numerous, and as their intermarriages have been carefully recorded, we have thus fortunately a sort of index to the names of many other families of Scottish settlers in the Ards and Castlereagh. Their descendants in the male line intermarried with the families of Dunlop, Gray, Kennedy, Coulter, Todd, M'Birney, M'Cullough, Campbell, Boyd, Jackson, Walker, Rodgers, Stevenson, Malcomson, King, Ferguson, M'Quoid, Cregg, Bart, M'Munn, Bryson, Johnson, Smith, Carson, M'Kinstry, Busby, M'Kce, Shannon, M'Garock, Hamilton, Cally, Chalmers, RED, M'Roberts, Creighton, M'Whirter, M'Kibben, Cleland, Abernethy, REID, Agnew, Wilson, Irvine, Lindsay, M'Creary, Porter, Hanna, Taylor, Smyth, Carson, Wallace, Gamble, Miller, Catherwood, Malcolm, M'Cleary, Pollok, Lamont, Frame, Stewart, Minnis, Moorehead, M'Caw, Clark, Patterson, Neilson, Maxwell, Harris, Corbet, Milling, Carr, Winter, Patty, Cumming, M'Connell, M'Gowan.
Nearly an equal number of Orrs married wives of their own surname. These numerous descendants, bearing the surname of Orr, resided in Ballyblack, Clontinacally, Killinether, Ballygowan, Ballykeel, MunIough, Bally-been, Castleaverie, Conlig, Lisleen, Bangor, Gortgrib, Granshaw, Killaghey, Gilnahirk, Ballyalloly, Ballyknockan, Ballycloughan, Tullyhubbert, Moneyrea, Newtownards, Ballymisca, Dundonald, Magherascouse, Castlereagh, Bootin, Lisdoonan, GREYABBEY, Ballyrea, Ballyhay, Ballywilliam, Saintfield, Ballymacarrett, Craigantlet, Braniel. The greatest number of the name lived in Ballykeel, Clontinacally, and Ballygowan. The descendants in the female line from James Orr and Janet M'Clement of Ballyblack inter-married with the families of Riddle of Comber, Thomson of Newtownards, Moore of Drummon, Orr of Lisleen, Orr of Ballykeel, Murdock of Comber, Irvine of Crossnacreevy, M'Creary of Bangor, Hanna of Conlig, Orr of Bangor, Orr of Ballygowan, M'Munn of Lis-leen, Barr of Lisleen, Davidson of Clontinacally, Jamieson of Killaghey, Martin of Killy-nure, Martin of Gilnahirk, Matthews of ---, Watson of Carryduff, Shaw of Clontinacally, Todd of Ballykeel, Jennings of ---, Davidson of ---, M'Kibbin of Knocknasham, M'Cormick of Ballybeen, M'Cullock of Ballyhanwood, M'Kee of Lisleen, Patterson of Moneyrea, Dunwoody of Madyroe, Barr uf Bangor, M'Gee of Todstown, Burgess of Mady-roe, M'Kinning of Lisnasharock, Gerrit of Ballyknockan, Pettigrew of Ballyknockan, M'Coughry of Ballyknockan, Yates of ---, Shaw of ---, Stevenson of Ballyrush, .M'Kib-bin of Haw, Piper of Comber, Blakely of Madyroe, Orr of Ballyknockan, Stewart of Clon-tinacally, Hamilton of Ballykeel, Dunbar of Slatady, Orr of Ballygowan, Malcolm of Bootan, Porter of Ballyristle, M'Connell of Ballyhenry, Kennedy of Comber, Malcolm of Moat, Orr of Ballykeel, Martin of Ballycloughan, REID of Ballygowan, Lewis of ---, Orr of Clontinacally, Orr of Florida, M'Creary of ---, Miller of Conlig, Lowry of Bally-macashan, Harris of Ballymelady, Orr of BaIlyknockan, M'Quoid of Donaghadee, Appleton of Conlig, M'Burney of ---, Hanna of Clontinacally, Johnson of Rathfriland, Orr of Bally-keel, Stewart of Clontinacally and Malone, Patterson of Moneyrea and Lisbane, Black of Gortgrib, Hill of Gilnahirk, Murdock of Gortgrif, Kilpatrick of ---., Gregg of ---, Huddlestone of Moneyrea, M'Culloch of Moneyrea, Steel of Maghrescouse, Erskine of Woodlburn, Campbell of ---, White of ---, Clark of Clontinacally, M'Fadden of Clon-tinacally, Hunter of Clontinacally and Ravarra, Orr of Castlereagh, M'Kean of ---, M'Kittrick of Lisleen, Frame of Munlough, Garret of Ballyknockan, Kennedy of Tullygirvan, Orr of Munlough, Dickson of Tullygirvan, M'Clure of Clontinacally, Porter of Beech-hill, Dinwoody of Carrickmadyroe, Strain of Newtownards, Burns of Cahard, Kennedy of Tullygirvan. M'Calla of Lisdoonan, M'Bratney of Raferey, Harrison of HoIywood, Piper of Moneyrea, MacWilliam of Ednaslate, Patterson of Tonachmore, Wright of Craigantlet, Boden of Craigantlet, Henderson of Ballyhaskin, Morrow of Belfast, M'Quoid of BranieI, M'Lean of Ballykeel, Neilson of Ravara, Crawford of Carrickmadyroe, M'Gown of Cross-nacreevy, Orr of Ballybee (MSS. Genealogy of the Family of James Orr of Ballyblack, drawn up from inscriptions on tombstones, by the late Gawin Orr of Castlereagh).--Rev. George Hill, Montegomery Manuscripts, p. 66.
4. Surly Boy (Charles the Yellow) was the Gaelic or Irish name of the chief of the Macdonnells.
5. Ulster Journal of Archeology, new series, vol. iii., pp. 148-152.
CHAPTER XXXIV THE GREAT PLANTATION OF ULSTER
AT the beginning of James I.'s time, although Elizabeth had waged fierce and devastating wars against the Ulster chiefs during most of her long reign, English authority was scarcely recognized in the North of Ireland. It was represented by the commanders of the ten districts into which Ulster was divided, but their rule was little more than a military one, and scarce extended beyond the buildings which composed their military posts; and by the bishops of the Episcopal Church, who had probably even fewer followers in spiritual things than the district governors had in temporal. The country still enjoyed its native laws and customs--still obeyed its native chiefs. There were no towns in Ireland to play the part which the English and Scottish burghs had done in the Middle Ages, to be the homes of free institutions, the centres from which civilization might spread. Belfast scarcely existed even in name, and Derry and Carrickfergus consisted but of small collections of houses round the English forts. The whole country, like the Scottish Highlands, was inhabited by clansmen, obeying tribal laws and usages, and living in some measure on agriculture, but mainly on the produce of their herds and flocks. The land was held by the chiefs nominally for the clans, but really for their own benefit.
The plantations in county Down and county Antrim, thorough as they were as far as they went, were limited in scope in comparison with the "Great Plantation of Ulster," for which James I.'s reign will be forever remembered in Ireland. It is extremely difficult to make out the circumstances which led up to this remarkable measure, or to understand the action of the Ulster chiefs, who, to all appearance, played so thoroughly into the hands of the Government. Which side first was false to the peace, it is impossible now to say. One party declares that the chiefs began to conspire against the Government; the other, that the Government drove the chiefs to conspire in self-defence. The Ulster chiefs began to correspond with Spain once more, as if in preparation for a new outbreak; the Government intercepted the letters, and O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, and O'Donnell, earl of Tyrconnel, confessed, if not guilt, at least fear of punishment, by leaving their country, and sailing from Lough Swilly along with a number of adherents, on the 3d September, 1607. In 1608, Sir Cahir O'Dogherty perished in rebellion, and his lands were confiscated. Mulmorie O'Reilly, whose father died fighting for the English at Yellow Ford, and whose mother was a niece of the duke of Ormond, had to accept a "proportion" of his lands. Other native chieftains, against whom there was no accusation of disloyalty, were compelled to surrender a large part of their property, and a vigorous attempt was now made to plant the country with Protestants.
It is asserted by Hill, that as a result of the flight of the earls and of an act of Parliament known as the 11th of Elizabeth, no less than 3,800,000 acres in Tyrone, Derry, Donegal, Fermanagh, and Cavan were placed at the disposal of the Crown, and made available for plantations. The earls had now rebelled against the king and been proclaimed traitors, and their lands were therefore "escheated" to the Crown. Estates were constantly changing hands in this way in Scotland during the sixteenth century. The more important of the chiefs had gone into voluntary exile with Tyrone; against the rest it was not difficult for the Crown lawyers to find sufficient proof of treason. Thus all northern Ireland--Londonderry, Donegal, Tyrone, Cavan, Armagh, and Fermanagh--had passed at one fell swoop into the hands of the Crown; while, as we have seen, Down and Antrim had been already, to a great extent, taken possession of and colonized by English and Lowland Scotch. The plan adopted by King James for the colonization of the six "escheated" counties was to take possession of the finest portions of this great tract of country, amounting in all to nearly four millions of acres; to divide it into small estates, none larger than two thousand acres; and to grant these to men of known wealth and substance. Those who accepted grants were bound to live on their land themselves, to bring with them English and Scottish settlers, and to build for themselves and for their tenants fortified places for defence, houses to live in, and churches in which to worship. The native Irish were assigned to the poorer lands and less accessible districts; while the allotments to the English and Scots were kept together, so that they might form communities and not mix or intermarry with the Irish. The errors of former Irish "plantations" were to be avoided--the mistakes of placing too much land in one hand, and of allowing non-resident proprietors. The purpose was not only to transfer the ownership of the land from Irish to Scot, but to introduce a Scottish population in place of an Irish one; to bring about in Ulster exactly what has happened without design during the last half-century in New Zealand, the introduction of an English-speaking race, the natives being expected to disappear as have perished the Maori.
The English Council requested the Scottish Privy Council to draw up a list of Scotsmen willing to settle in Ulster. The king seems to have taken the duty of selecting the Scottish undertakers into his own hands, the men who got grants being of higher social standing and wider influence than those who first offered. A second and more careful survey having been made in 1609, the commission proceeded, in the summer of 1610, to divide up the land. This second survey may have been better than the first, but it was very inaccurate after all, as it mapped out for division only 500,000 acres of land suitable for "plantation," out of a total acreage of 3,800,000 contained in the six counties.1 Fifty-nine Scotsmen were chosen, and to them 81,000 acres were allotted in estates scattered over the five counties, Londonderry being reserved for the city of London. A careful examination of the list of Scottish undertakers enables us to see the plan which was finally adopted for securing proper colonists. There was, of course, as was always the case at this time, a certain number of the hangers-on about the Court who got grants, which they at once sold to raise money. But as a whole, the plan of distribution was thoroughly well conceived and well carried out.
James seems to have seen that the parts of Scotland nearest Ireland, and which had most intercourse with it, were most likely to yield proper colonists. He resolved, therefore, to enlist the assistance of the great families of the southwest, trusting that their feudal power would enable them to bring with them bodies of colonists. Thus grants were made to the duke of Lennox, who bad great power in Dumbartonshire; to the earl of Abercorn and his brothers, who represented the power of the Hamiltons in Renfrewshire. North Ayrshire had been already largely drawn on by Hamilton and Montgomery, but one of the sons of Lord Kilmarnock, Sir Thomas Boyd, received a grant; while from South Ayrshire came the Cunninghams and Crawfords, and Lord Ochiltree and his son; the latter were known in Galloway as well as in the county from which their title was derived. But it was on Galloway men that the greatest grants were bestowed. Almost all the great houses of the times are represented,--Sir Robert Maclellan, Laird Bomby as he is called, who afterwards became Lord Kirkcudbright, and whose great castle stands to this day; John Murray of Broughton, one of the secretaries of state; Vans of Barnbarroch; Sir Patrick MeKie of Laerg; Dunbar of Mochrum; one of the Stewarts of Garlies, from whom Newtown-Stewart in Tyrone takes its nalne. Some of these failed to implement their bargains, but the best of the undertakers proved to be men like the earl of Abercorn and his brothers, and the Stewarts of Ochiltree and Garlies; for while their straitened means led them to seek fortune in Ireland, their social position enabled them without difficulty to draw good colonists from their own districts, and so fulfil the terms of the "plantation" contract, which bound them to "plant" their holdings with tenants. With the recipient of two thousand acres, tbe agreement was that he was to bring "forty-eight able men of the age of eighteen or upwards, being born in England or the inward parts of Scotland." He was further bound to grant farms to his tenants, the sizes of these being specified, and it being particularly required that these should be "feus" or on lease for twenty-one years or for life. A stock of muskets and hand weapons to arm himself and his tenants was to be provided. The term used, "the inward parts of Scotland," refers to the old invasions of Ulster by the men of the Western Islands. No more of these Celts were wanted; there were plenty of that race already in North Antrim; it was the Lowland Scots, who were peace-loving and Protestants, whom the Government desired. The phrase, "the inward parts of Scotland," occurs again and again.
These lands were now granted to three classes of proprietors. The first were English and Scottish undertakers, who were to plant with tenants from England or Scotland, and conform themselves in religion according to his Majesty's laws. The second were "servitors," or military undertakers, who were permitted to take Irish tenants; and the third were native irish who obtained grants. The first paid a yearly rent of L5 6s. 8d., the second of L8, and the third of L10 13s. 4d. for every thousand acres. But if the servitors planted part of their estates with English or Scotch tenants, their rents for all the lands thus colonized would be the same as was paid by the first class.
In 1609, the forfeited lands were surveyed by commissioners, many grants were made to undertakers and servitors, aud all things prepared for planting Ulster with another race, professing another religion. The Episcopa1 Church received a large proportion; Trinity College was not forgotten; and the great part of county Derry was given to the Corporation of London, on condition of building and fortifying Londonderry and Coleraine, and thus spending twenty thousand ponnds on the property. A committee of the Corporation, called the Irish Society, was formed, whose duty was to carry out the plantation of their estates.
Next year, the first settlers began to arrive. Some came from England, but most were from Scotland. The English settled in the sonthern part of the province; while the Scots occupied the north and centre, including Londonderry--and Coleraine, as well as Tyrone, "the fayrest and goodliest countrye in Ireland universallie." Among these settlers were so many who left their country for their country's good, that it became a proverb regarding any one not doing well, to say that his latter end would be "Ireland." But the great body of colonists were earnest and industrious. Succeeding bands were even more earnest aud more industrious, while the most worthless among them were, in every mental and moral quality, far above the Irish by whom they were surrounded.
At first these settlers erected their rude, rush-thatched huts near the landlord's castle for protection, and every night they had to place their flocks within the "bawn," or walled enclosure by which that castle was surrounded, for fear of the Irish driving them off in the darkness. But, afterwards, as the settlers became more numerous, they ventured to build their houses here and there in little clusters called towns. This caused each farmer's land to be divided into lots, separated one from another, and mixed up with the lots of others.
Many of the natives, driven to the mountains or woods, were known as woodkernes, and lived by plunder. But woe betide the unfortunate wood-kerne when taken in theft! Small crimes were punished by death. Bloodhounds were kept for tracing these outlaws, who, when taken, were often shot without trial. If tried, they were generally found guilty, and, when sentenced, halters were immediately put round their necks; they were then led through the principal streets of the town to the places of execution, and hanged in the most barbarous manner. But woodkernes were not the only enemies of the settlers. Large flocks of wolves roamed about by night, and often made sad havoc among their cattle. The land was unfenced and undrained. Much of it was covered with woods, affording refuge to the outlaws.
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