WHALEN’SCheat Sheet for R1b & Irish Sub-clades
The following was developed because I could not for the life of me remember, orkeep strait, all the alpha-numeric markers and their linkage to alpha-numericclassifications. In addition, some of the definitions found on the web are outof date and new testing and research have significantly changed the meaning orunderstanding regarding the groupings.
This ‘cheat sheet’, like any abbreviated list, suffers from a few inherentflaws such as over simplifying complex issues and being concise by leaving outpertinent information. Still, there are some virtues such as helping newbie’sand others that just can’t spend the time it takes to lock all the concepts anddefinitions into the memory bank. It’s also useful for the hobbyists that wanta simple bottom line understanding and are really are not interested in themany nuanced and often confusing scholarly arguments that the experts engagein.
In any case, here is my little list…the first category is the SNP marker(sometimes 2 or 3 seperate names if tested at both EA and FTDNA or other Labs)that is tested and will come back to you as either + or -. The next 2 items arethe old and new Haplogroup names as noted in the Y-linephylogenic tree, most of us know the first category (pre 2008, such as R1b1c7),but a major change occured in 2008 so there are alot of changes. The next setof information is only with some haplotypes and they are the categories thatsome well known researchers have developed such as McEwan’s‘R1bSTR19Irish’
There are 4 subclades to the R1b1 haplogroup, my primary focus is on the 3rdgroup or old 'R1b1c' and all its subclades
(I used U106 as an example of how it works but note that not all the followingwill have all of the above alternative catagories)
M18--R1b1a--found only at low frequencies in samples from Sardinia andLebanon
M73--R1b1b--x--R1b1b1-a sub clade approximatly 10-12500 yrs old, 31samples, mostly from central asia and a few from Italy-there appears to be 2branches, the first is an Italian, Anatolian and Pakistani group while thesecond is Chinese-possible origin along the old 'Silk Road' that connected thenamed territories
M269--R1b1c--R1b1b2--R1b1b2-a huge subgroup that is is the most commonfor European males-its fairly old but but there is alot of controversy aboutthe exact ages of each of the sub groups-recently subdivided by new discoveriesof P312 and L21
M37--R1b1c1--R1b1b2a--R1b1b2a2a - found in only 2 Australians but theyare apparently of 'European' heritige-tiny sample-private/family SNP grouping
M65--R1b1c2--R1b1b2b-- R1b1b2a2b -only 2 Basque’s, tinysample-private/family SNP grouping
M126--R1b1c3--R1b12h1--R1b1b2a2g1-only 1 European, tinysample-private/family SNP grouping
M153--R1b1c4--R1b1b2c--R1b1b2a2c - branch of P312--Iberian Peninsula ordescendants i.e. New World Latinos, small sample
M160--R1b1c5--R1b12h2--R1b1b2a2g2 -only 3 ‘Europeans’- tinysample-likely private/family SNP grouping
M167 or SRY2627--R1b1c6--R1b1b2d--R1b1b2a2d -branch of P312-- ancientstock, mostly Iberia; some SW England and S Ireland, reflecting pre Celticinvasion stock? possibly S W France
M222--R1b1c7--R1b1b2e--R1b1b2a2e -R1bSTR19Irish-branch of P312-- ‘NorthWest Irish Variety’, Ireland, W Scotland, W England, of ‘Naill of the 9Hostages’ fame
P66--R1b1c8--R1b1b2f--R1b1b2a2f –Italy, tiny sample-private/family SNPgrouping
U106 or S21--R1b1c9--R1b1b2g--R1b1b2a1 - R1bSTR22Frisian–originally known as ‘Frisian’ Invader marker, new research suggests themajority are more generally Germanic-likely North/West European/Netherlands inorigin with two 'hotspots' in the Netherlands and western Austria. The largeBritish Isles pop. is likely Germanic invasion legacy-U106/S21 is estimated tobe found in about 25% of European ancestry men of the R1b-M269 haplogroup. Thismakes it the most common subclade of R1b-M269
S26 or L1--R1b1c9a--R1b1b2g3 or null439--R1b1b2a1c -branch ofU106-Germanic Invader marker of British Isles, post Roman era, Angles, Saxon,Jutes, concentrated in central England, some Spain, Norway, S Germany-possibleNorman or French ancient origin
U198 or S29--R1b1c9b--R1b1b2g1--R1b1b2a1a - R1bSTR3-branch ofU106-- confined to S. England (pre-Anglo-Saxon?). Known as Frisian 2 in K.Nordtvedt research-unclear if it’s a Saxon invasion marker or earlier Germanicmigration
U152 or S28 --R1b1c10--R1b1d2h--R1b1b2a2g - branch ofP312--Ancient Celts- Alpine Germany and Switzerland origins - possibly the ‘LaTene culture” Celts, also possibly a pre-roman era ‘Invasion’ or 'immigration wave' marker of the British Isles pop.--moderate numbers in Scotland, England,Wales, large number in Switzerland, Alpine Germany and Italy, also in Greece,France, Poland, Norway, Netherlands-also an Ashkenazi group in Eastern Europewith Sephardic/Converso members constituting a separate cluster--L2 appears tobe a significant sub-clade downstream of U152/S28, and may split the grouproughly 2/3rds L2+ and 1/3rd L2-. Unknown relationship to M126 and M160.
S68--R1b1c11--R1b1b2--R1b1b2a2h - branch of P312--2 unrelated people inSweden and Scotland, tiny sample-possible private/family SNP grouping
M269--R1b1c*--R1b1b2*- approx. 50% of R1b1b2 that tests negative for allknown sub clades get the *
M335--R1b1d--x--R1b1c--tiny subgroup based on a single sample found inTurkey/Anitolia
S25-NOTE--contrary to first hopes, this SNP has been proven to NOT bethe marker for Irish III or any other R1b haplogroup-in fact, its higher on thePhylogenic tree and includes the Q,P and R haplogroups-very difficult to testfor and EA no longer offers it
'Cutting Edge' SNP's-purpose and relationships in the Rhaplogroup are not fully understood
P312 or S116 or rs34276300 or R1b1b2a2--a new marker thatsplits R1b and particularly the old R1b1c/R1b1b2 group in two, with U126/S21one main group and P312/S116 being the other-possibly along East/West Europeanancestral lines-impact unclear as of yet-P312 is thought to be older than U106
L21 or rs11799226--an exciting new marker that splits the largeP312* group- discovered by the first R1b 23andMe test results submitted by'Whalen, Reynolds, Kenyon and Price' -thought to be a very old SNP and iscreated by a mutation to G (derived) from the C (ancestral)-This SNP has a verystrong 'Celtic' signal but origins unknown-early estimates is it is around 3500yrs old
L2 or rs2566671--L2 appears to be a significant sub-cladedownstream of U152/S28 (or within), and may split the group roughly 2/3rds L2+and 1/3rd L2-. Unknown relationship to M126 and M160.
L11 or S127 or rs9786076-considered 'cutting edge' SNP'sthat are 'upstream' of S116 and give new info about the Phylogenic Tree and the'R1b family' and said haplogroups
P107-branch of U106--P107 appears to be a 'private' SNP--according tothe 'Rb1-U106 Project', it has not been found in even one of thier 372 members
P311 or S128 or rs9785659-considered 'cutting edge' SNP'sthat are 'upstream' of S116 and give new info about the Phylogenic Tree and the'R1b family' and said haplogroups
P310 or S129 or rs9786283-considered 'cutting edge' SNP'sthat are 'upstream' of S116 and give new info about the Phylogenic Tree and the'R1b family' and said haplogroups
S121, S121, S123, S124--research now indicates that these 4 new SNP'sare 'private' or 'family' markers and no longer relevent
Other interesting SNP's, some new via the Mega tests (ie: 23andMe)
I include these so folks that have gotten the huge mega SNP tests can plug inthe rsXXXX numbers below into thier 'raw data' section on their 23andMe website as see for themselves if they are ancestoral, or derived (derived meansyou have it and its important to you)
*=new and major SNP's for the old R1b1c* super group
L44/rs34738655, L45/rs35760092, L46/rs13304625, L47/rs34283263, andL48/rs13303755
rs20321 = A is the Marker for M222-the NW Irish (Nial) clade
2008 ISOGG Haplogroup conversion chart for R
Note-this is slightly different than the new, similar 2008 FTDNA/Karafet Treethat is in the cheat sheet above so there is a possibility of 3 classficationsfor the exact same SNP <shrug-its a new science>
Credit for the majority of above listing goes to the previous lists by;‘scotdna’, J. McEwan, D. Faux, Wikipedia (Haplogroup R1b) and feedback fromDNA-Forum members
Again, at various times I got confused as to which haplogroup types or subclades had been found in Ireland and what were the markers or profiles. Thefollowing are the 4 most commonly known Irish haplogroups, with a few othersnoted at the end.
1)-Irish type I--R1b-NW-Ir....'North West Irish' or 'Niall of the9 Hostages'-originally designated Irish Modal Haplotype (IMH) from the Trinitystudy, later acknowledged a misnomer as its very rare in South Ireland andNW/Niall is much more accurate
2)-Irish type II--R1b-S-Ir.... or 'South Irish' as identified byK Nordtvedt
NOTE***-I originally had put the following as the South Irish Modal, butFrancis of the Whalen project spotted a problem...it did not match withNordtverts!
I think the issue is there are some large family group studies out there andthey are similar to the Irish II's modal. Its likely that some 'combining' hasoccured to create a 'hybred' Irish II. In any case, the reader is warned aboutmodal variants out there that are called South Irish, but do not match theoriginal cluster. (In fact, this caveat is probably true for most the modalsout there, not just the Irish)
Alternative IrishII?-Clan Hybrid?
3)-Irish type III--R1b-Ir III.... determined by the followingmodals (with the AtlanticModalHaplotype to compare)
Irish TypeIII AMH
DYS 439 = 11 12
DYS 459 = 8-99-10
DYS 464 = 13-13-15-1715-15-17-17
DYS 456 = 1516
DYS 463 = 2322
(credit also to Dennis Wrights research on III and also note that S25 has beenproven to NOT be an Irish or even a 'R1b' marker)
4)-Irish Type IV--R1b-Ir/Cont....found all over Ireland and onthe contenent-possible invader marker?
OtherIrish Varieties noted
A- 'Irish Haplogroup 1'-- This 'Irish Haplogroup 1' that was firstnoted/developed by Hill, Jobling and Bradley, as reported in "Nature,international weekly journal of science" March 2000?
****UPDATE-further reading suggests this might be the same as the above Irishtype I/NW Irish/Niall grouping
B- 'Leinster/Lagin Irish Modal'--R1bSTR7....associated with severalhistorical Irish Clan names such as O'Beirne (Lagin Chieftans), Beatty,McLaughlan (a Kings of Meath sept)- a fairly small cluster or modal
13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 15 17 17 11 1119 23 16 15 18 18 39 40 11 12
Other than 15c 15c 17g 17g at 464x, the group generally exhibits 14 13 30 at389i 392 389ii, 18 at 448, 11 at 442 and high values at CDY a and b.
DYS 389-1 = 14
DYS 389-2 = 30
DYS 448, 449 = 18-30
GATA H4 = 11-11
DYS 442 = 11
credit to 'Kaybee' of DNA forums
C-'Irish Sea Modal'--apparently it is some sort of variant of the 'IrishType 1'/NW Irish/Niall grouping in DYS values, but many in the grouping areactually negative for M222-very early classification scheme and seems less usednow
DYS 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 458 459a 459b 455 454447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 25 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 15 16 1617
D- Colla Uais & Dal Riata Kingdom- Colla Uais was a high king ofIreland. Circa 325CE Colla Uais seized Ulster subsequently taking his followersto Scotland. His descendants, known as the 'sons of Erc' (Angus, Fergus &Loarn), became the traditional founders of the Scottish line of the Dál Riatakingdom circa 465CE
DYS 393 390 19 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389i 392 389ii 458 459a 459b 455 454447 437 448 449 464a 464b 464c 464d
Alleles 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 1717
E-Ulster-Derry/Down Modal--a small but destinct group that seems toshare a common link to Ulster and the Derry and Down Counties-Olivers,Mcpherson & Beck are surnames associated so far
Credit to 'Kaybee' for this Modal
F--O'Connor/Murphy Modal--this subgroup is another small but distinctgrouping that mostly involves 20 to 30 family names such as O'Connor, Connor,Murphy but also has a few O'Tool's, Phalen's and Ryan. Many of these names areassociated with Leinster Province. This sub group appears to be L21+
12 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 16
and the following being the most common according to Mike O'Connor
Thanks to all the folks on DNA Forums that helped. All mistakes are of course,mine alone.
Michael Whalen June 2008
updated Jan 19 2009