| || Notes for PAUL HENKLE:|
Name: Paul Henckel
ALIA: Paul /Henkel/
Birth: 15 DEC 1754 in Dutchman's Creek, Rowan County, North Carolina 1
Death: 17 NOV 1825 in New Market, Shenandoah County, Virginia 1
Burial: Emmanuel Lutheran Church, New Market, Shenandoah County, Virginia 1
Occupation: Lutheran Minister
Event: 1820 US Census 1820 Paul Henckel Household, New Market Township, Shenandoah County, Virginia 2
ORDN: 6 JUN 1792 Lancaster, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
1. REVEREND PAUL HENKEL, from The Eller Chronicles, Volume 8, February 1, 1994
Paul Henckel, son of Jacob and Barbara Teter Henckel, born 15 Dec 1754, Dutchman's Creek, Rowan [now Davidson] County, North Carolina; died 17 Nov 1825, buried, New Market, Virginia; married 20 Nov 1776, Elizabeth Negley. This grandson of John Justus Henckel, a nephew of Catherine Henckel Biffle, and first cousin of Mary Biffle Eller, became a most prominent Lutheran minister in the southeast during a remarkable ministry that spanned forty years (1785 -1825). He was the father of nine children and the progenitor of a long line of Lutheran ministers.
Paul Henkle wrote almost daily in his diary in German throughout his busy and productive life. The diary remains today a primary source for Henkle family history (I have not yet seen a copy - apparently parts of it have yet to be translated). Because a very busy Paul Henckel took time to write in his journal each day, the Henckel family and descendants know more family history than most American families.
Paul Henckel received a remarkably fine education for a person of that day. During his early years he was taught in the German language, first by Cathrine Alein and second by a doctor of medicine, Dr. William Geiniz. In 1764 an English school was established in the area and his teacher, William Robinson, who had studied at Oxford University, taught him English. In 1776 he enrolled as a theological student of Reverend Krugh, Lutheran minister, of Frederick, Maryland. By the time he completed his studies he was able to speak, read, and write in Latin, German and English.
After serving in the Revolutionary War, Paul Henkle's first and only attempt at farming ended when a flood destroyed a dam intended to provide water power for a grist mill. He began preaching in 1781 but was examined by the Lutheran Diocese of Pennsylvania in 1783 and ordained June 6, 1792,"
The quiet and peaceful life of a village pastor did not appeal to Paul Henckel. He chose to be an itinerant Lutheran minister and travel and preach among the frontier settlements. He traveled constantly to carry the Lutheran message to the people in the most remote cabins on the frontiers of North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia (then including West Virginia), Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio and probably Indiana. He preached almost daily in either German or English in barns, cabins, or under the trees to all who would listen.
The Paul Henkle family moved a dozen times before settling in 1818 for the last time in New Market, Virginia where he had lived once before and where he and his sons had achieved ever lasting fame as founders of the Henckel Press. Perhaps it is not stretching to say that few men had as great an impact on the German settlers in western North Carolina, western Virginia and East Tennessee. He was the founder of the Lutheran Diocese of North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia, and the Henckel Press. He was a poet, a composer and publisher and his descendants continued to have a profound impact on the course of Lutheranism in the southeastern United States.
Because of his constant travels along the Appalachian frontier, Paul Henckel knew better than most men the nature and concerns of the German settlers. Well-educated for his day, he recognized the great need for better educational materials for use in both church and school. He began to contemplate how such educational aids might be improved and provided. He is said to have engaged in long discussions with his son, Solomon, about the matter and with the help and support of his sons, a Press was purchased and placed in operation. Solomon gave financial assistance to the enterprise and eventfully became the owner while his son, Ambrose, served as the principal printer and editor. Paul continued his ministry and wrote much of the material published by the press, especially religious hymns of which he composed hundreds, in both German and English. The Henkle Press in New Market, Virginia dates from 1806.
The impact of the Henkle Press throughout the southeast should not be underestimated. The wide influence of the diverse and extensive publications of the Press extended over a broad area embracing several states. A letter from one of the employees in 1812 says, "We have printed and finished (the following) books and pamphlets: 1500 English Catechisms, 2500 A.B.C. Books, 100 Free-Mason Sermons... about 1500 Honig Tropfen, 200 Communion Hymns, 150 copies of the Address of the Governor to the Assembly, a large number of orders for books to be printed in New York, blanks and many notices... we are printing an edition of 2500 Hymn Books."
An uneducated Paul Henckel would have resisted any notion that English should be used in their churches or schools. The Germans clung to their beloved native language with great tenacity and stubbornness. This attitude did not derive from a nationalistic ambition to establish a bit of the fatherland in America. Rather, these conservative Germans were convinced that the most profound religious teachings could provoke their deepest feelings and convictions only when expressed in the German language. They also understood that the preservation of their German heritage depended upon the retention of their native language.
Paul Henkle, although a full German but an educated one, apparently came to recognize that the political and social climate of the time required Germans to learn and use the English language if they were to realize their full potential as citizens in a democratic society dominated by English-speaking people. He supported bilingualism for the Germans throughout his life. Such views were not universally welcomed, and he no doubt had some critics. But his introduction of printed bilingual information from the Henckel Press unleased a powerful force for change. For example, his ABC books were printed in the German language on one page and the English translation on the following page.
As a need for publications in both German and English languages became apparent, the Henkle Press responded. Paul Henckel wrote in 1811 of his plans to publish books including a book of Hymns and various schoolbooks in both English and German languages. In 1816 his English Hymnbook, with 347 hymns, of which 292 were his own composition, came from the press. After his death in 1825, the second edition, published in 1838, contained 292 of his hymns. The Henckel press continued to operate well into the next century and evidence of its existence are still to be found in New Market, Virginia
Rev. Paul Henckel was a remarkably enlightened man for his day.
2. The Autobiography and Chronological Life of Reverend Paul Henckel, 1754 - 1825. edited by Ken Hinkle
This book provides a fascinating account from diaries of the life of the Lutheran minister Paul Hinkle and his wife as they traveled by horse and buggy on missionary trips through the mid-Atlantic states in the late 1700s and early 1800s. Their travels took them on many trips to North Carolina and to Pendleton County, Virginia (West Virginia). They lived at short intervals in Sheperdstown and Point Pleasant, West Virginia. The diaries were translated from German to English by the late Reverend William J. Finck in the 1930s.
Reverend Henckel was born in Rowan County, North Carolina but moved with his parents (Jacob & Barbara Hinkle) to what is now Pendleton and Grant Counties, West Virginia where he spent much of his boyhood and went to school. The diaries tell of Paul and his brother Moses going to a school close to or in the fort where his grandfather John Justus Henkle lived. The fort is known as Hinkle's Fort and was located in Germany Valley near present Riverton in Pendleton County. An Indian attack is mentioned that probably occurred in the county near the North Fork River.
Paul preached numerous times in churches and homes in Pendleton County and was even a resident for a few years. His brother Moses Henckel was one of the officers that formed Pendleton County and is listed on the monument at Ruddle that commemorates the formation of the county. Paul's sister Christina married Isaac Herman (Harman) and lived in Germany Valley. Paul's mother, the former Barbara Dieter (Teter), lived for many years in the county. Local names mentioned in the diaries besides Harman, Hinkle and Teter include Arbogast, Bennett, Herber (Harper), Mallo (Mallow), Propst and Trambauer (Trumbo).
The diaries chronicle the many places Paul Henckel journeyed to and lived, the people he knew and lodged with, the ministry he performed, the places where he preached and the many hardships he and his wife endured in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. A wealth of genealogical records includes scores of marriages, funerals and baptisms performed by Reverend Henckel in Shenandoah, Page, and Rockingham Counties, Virginia and adjoining states. Paul lived much of his life at New Market, Virginia where he and his wife are buried at Emmanuel Lutheran Church.
Two of Paul Henckel's sons, Solomon and Ambrose, established the Henckel Press at New Market, Virginia in 1806.
3. Biography from Virtual American Biographies
HENKEL, Paul, clergyman, born in Rowan county, North Carolina, 15 December, 1754; died in New Market, Virginia, 17 November, 1825. His ancestor, Gerhardt, a court-preacher in Germany, and one of the earliest Lutheran ministers who came to America, settled in Germantown, Pennsylvania, about 1740. Nearly all the male descendants have been Lutheran clergymen. Paul's father settled in North Carolina, but in 1760 the family were driven by the Catawba Indians to take refuge in western Virginia. The son grew up an expert hunter, and familiar with Indian warfare. About 1776 he listened to the preaching of Whitefield, and determined to enter the ministry. After receiving a brief classical and theological training from the Lutheran clergyman in Fredericktown, Maryland, he was licensed to preach by the synod, settled at New Market, Virginia, and was ordained in Philadelphia on 6 June, 1792. He established several churches in the vicinity of New Market and in Augusta county, Virginia, and Rowan county, North Carolina, where he labored subsequently. While in North Carolina he helped to form the synod there. In 1805 he returned to New Market, and made missionary tours through western Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. He was a fervent speaker and writer, both in English and German, and a man of earnest convictions, who roused much opposition by his insistence on the conservation of the original confessions and rites of the church. He published a work in German on "Baptism and the Lord's Supper" (1809; afterward translated into English); a German hymn-book (1810), and one in the English language (1816), in each of which were included many hymns composed by himself. He also issued a German catechism (1814), followed by one in English, and was the author of a German sataical poem entitled "Zeitvertreib." His nephew, Moses Montgomery, clergyman, born in Pendleton county, Virginia, 23 March, 1798; died in Richmond, Virginia, in 1864, became an itinerant minister of the M. E. church in Ohio in 1819, was for some time a missionary to the Wyandotte Indians, and preached in that state and in Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Alabama. He established a religious magazine, and associated himself in 1845 with Dr. McFerrin in the editorship of the "Christian Advocate " at Nashville. In 1847 he established the " Southern Ladies' Companion," which he conducted for eight years. He taught in Philadelphia and other places, and was thus engaged in Baltimore, Maryland, during the civil war, but was sent within the Confederate lines. He published, among other books, a volume of "Masonic Addresses" (1848); "The Primary Platform of Methodism " (1851); "Analysis of Church Government" (1852); "Life of Bishop Bas-coin" (1853); and "Primitive Episcopacy" (1856).
4. Biography of Reverend Paul Henkel
Rev. PAUL HENKEL was born on Dec. 15, 1754, at Dutchman's Creek, about 13 miles from Salisbury, Rowan County, North Carolina. The town has since been flooded to form a lake. Paul was the son of Jacob Henkel and Barbara Dieter (Teter) and a brother to Christina Henkel, great great grandmother of David Algie Carpenter, Sr.
Paul's family left Rowan County, North Carolina early in 1757. Soon after their arrival at Ft. Seybert, Pendleton County, Virginia(Now West Virginia), his sister was burned to death in an Indian attack upon the Fort. His family settled just to the west of the Shenandoah Mountains.
Paul spoke and wrote both English and German well. He learned the Lutheran Orthodox and Cooper's trade.
He married Elizabeth Negly on Nov. 20, 1776. They had 6 Children. They were:
1. Solomon 1777--1847
2 Phillip 1779--1833
3. Ambrose 1786--
4. David 1795--1831
5. Andrew 1790--1870
6. Charles 1798--1844
Paul preached his first sermon in 1781. He was encouraged by the Rev. John Andrew Krug of Fredrick, Md. So he resolved to devote himself to the ministry and studied Latin, Greek, and Theology under the Rev. Christian Streit at Winchester, Virginia. He was licensed in York, Pennsylvania. In 1783, and later ordained by the same body at Lancaster, Pennsylvania on June 6, 1792.
Paul became the greatest American Lutheran Missionary of his lifetime, traveling each year through Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. He founded many permanent congregations, and sought out the pastors to take charge of them. Much of his work was at his own expense. He turned his home into a family theological seminary and trained four brothers and five sons for the ministry.
Paul's headquarters were at New Market, Virginia, although he frequently was gone on trips. From 1800--1805, he made his home in Rowen County, North Carolina, where he was born and probably had relatives remaining. During the war of 1812, he lived at Point Pleasant, Virginia on the Ohio River.
Paul provided much text for his sons who ran the Henkel Press. He wrote and they published "Das New Eingerichtete Gesand-Buch" (1810)," Kurzer Zeituertreib" (1810), "The Church Hymn Book" (1816), and numerous more lesser works. The Henkel Press circulated these writings widely. Paul was a copious diarist and used his diary to write his autobiography, which was also published by the Henkel Press in German.
In 1819, Paul's son David was seeking ordination by the General Synod, but failed to receive it. Both David and Paul were disturbed by this and became more so when a leader in the General Synod promised to censor David at the coming 1820 meeting, for David's harsh stand on non-Lutherans. In a sermon, David had said Lutherans marrying outside the church were like cows and horsed mating. Sensing there was no chance for David to receive ordination at the next Synod, they openly broke with the Synod in 1820, setting up their own Synod just before the General Synod opened. Paul and David declared that theirs was the only true Synod to be recognized and that the former General Synod was of Non-effect. Their first item of business was to ordain David Henkel. They drew many away from the General Synod. Those who followed them were termed "Henkelites".
Paul and David traveled widely to spread a continuing falling away from the General Synod. Instead of a unified body, Paul and David now worked for many organizations which would not be controlled by a central body. For awhile, it appeared the unified Lutheran Church in America might disappear due to this movement.
Paul was for from home on a trip when he was struck by a paralytic stroke in 1823. His right side was paralyzed; he could neither Walk nor speak. He was taken back to New Market, Virginia. Where he made some recovery. It was hard for him to walk, and his speech remained slow and slurred, but he was able to continue writing. He retired from all his activities except for writing, which he continued to do till six weeks before his death on November 27, 1825.
David and his brother Phillip continued their work against the General Synod. They almost realized their complete ambition, but fate was against them. In 1831, David died at age 36. Two years later Phillip was dead at age 54. Without the divisive factor of these three men, Paul, David, and Phillip, the General Synod reorganized in 1835.
5. Life Sketches of Lutheran Ministers, North Carolina and Tennessee Synods 1773-1965, Pages 86 to 91
HENKEL, PAUL, born Dec. 15, 1754, on Dutchman's Creek, 16 miles from Salisbury, in Rowan County (Now a part of Davie County), was the first Lutheran pastor born in North Carolina. Parents: Jacob and Mary Barbara (Teeter) Henkel. Married Elizabeth Negeley (sometimes spelled Negly, Nagly), Nov. 20, 1776. Children: Six sons and three daughters: Solomon (a physician), and five minister sons, Philip, Ambrose, Andrew, David and Charles; daughters were Hanna (married the Rev. John N. Stirewalt), Naomi, and Sabina. While preparing to become a minister and in his early ministry supported his family by working at the cooper's trade. In 1776 he began his study in theology and the classics under the guidance and sponsorship of the Rev. John Andrew Krugh, Fredericktown, Maryland. Licensed by the Ministerium of Pennsylvania in June 1783, with renewal annually until ordination by the same synod on June 6, 1792. Served churches in Virginia, and perhaps in other states, from his home in New Market, Virginia, until 1806 when he was appointed "travelling preacher," and was allowed $40 a month for the time he was actually engaged in his work. The next year (1807) he reported that he travelled 128 days in the service of the synod and baptized 158 children and received $106.05 on this journey. In 1808 he was appointed missionary for Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee, and from records it appears that he was re-appointed annually with his field widened to "territory of his own selection". It seems reasonable to assume that during the years he was travelling preacher he would have lived in N. C. from 1800 to 1805 while serving the following churches in this state: Dutchman's Creek Church (later called New Jerusalem, then Reformation from 1870 to disbanding in 1925), Davie County, 1800-05; Becks-Bethany-Pilgrim, St. Luke, Davidson County, Nazareth-Shiloh, Forsyth County, 1800-05; also, in same area occasional supply with other Tennesee Synod pastors. Assistant to Johann Gottfried Arends (Arndt), Emmanuel, Lincolnton-Zion, Catawba County, 1803; and supply, St. Mark, Gaston County, 1803-1805. Because of malarial climate moved back to New Market, Virginia, 1805. Made repeated missionary tours in North Ccarolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Tennesee, Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana." No more active, indefatigable and self-denying missionary than the Rev. Paul Henkel ever labored in this country" (p. 308, The Lutherans in America by Edmund Jacob Wolf, D.D.). One of four pastors with 14 laymen, organizing the North Carolina Synod in 1803. Assisted in organizing Ohio Synod in 1818, but did not becoming a member. Also an organizer of Tennesee Synod, with six other North Carolina Synod pastors, including sons Philip and David. Wrote and published the following: A work on Baptism and the Lord's Supper in German (1809), later translated into English; a German hynmbook with 246 hymns (1810), with some hymns (perhaps in both books) written by himself. Also German and English catechisms based on Luther's Small Catechism. Preached in both German and English. One of the stalwart fathers of the Lutheran Church in North Carolina and in other states as well, particularly in Virginia and Ohio. To him and his family the church owes a great debt of gratitude. The records of the Ministerium Of Pennsylvania show that he attended its convention at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1820 for the last time. Died in New Market, Virginia, Nov. 17, 1825; buried at Emmanuel Church, New Market.
6. Two Hundred Years - Bethany-Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church
During the period 1794-1797 the Rev. Paul Henkel of the eminent Henkel family of New Market served as pastor, He started many churches in Virginia and traveled extensively in Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee, and Ohio, traversing all Ohio in a two-wheeled cart, and participated in the organization of three synods. A remarkable versatile man, he found time to be both author and publisher of hymnbooks and catechisms in English and in German, and to rear five sons for the Lutheran ministry who carried on the family publishing firm. This firm's most important enterprise was the English translation of the Book of Concord after seven years' work. It appeared in 1851 and was carefully read and studied by the members of this congregation, as was "Luther on the Sacraments" (1853) and "Luther's Church Postil" (1869) . Pastor Kuegele, in his "Historical Sketch" of the congregation wrote:
"If the now rising generation, many of whom the writer . . . has instructed and confirmed, will study Luther's 'House Postil' as their grandfathers did Luther's Church Postil', then is the future of this congregation secured; for then verily the blessing of the Lord will not depart from it."
We see how the providence of God used this publishing firm to recover the almost forgotten treasures of the Reformation and revive and preserve the faith of our fathers.
We might add here that one of the congregation's treasures is the small German pulpit Bible used in the log church. On the back page, written in German, probably by Pastor Paul Henkel and signed by the two elders of the church, we read:
"This copy of the Holy Scriptures was bought for the use of this congregation and is to be kept for that purpose. We as elders of this church attest this with our own hands.
Augusta County, Keinert's Church
(signed) Nicholas Busch
November 9, 1797 Casper Keinadt"
7. Reverend Paul Henkel's Missionary Trip to Ohio
REV. PAUL HENKEL'S JOURNAL.
HIS MISSIONARY JOURNEY TO THE STATE OF OHIO IN 1806.
Translated from the German by Rev. F. E. Cooper, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and edited by Clement L. Martzolff, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.
Paul Henkel was commissioned to undertake this missionary journey by the Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania, which had examined, licensed and finally ordained him in 1792. At this time (1806) he was located at New Market, Va., and undertook this missionary journey from that point. The Ministerium of Pennsylvania paid him $40.00 a month for the actual time that he was engaged on this journey and on the similar journey which he made to North Carolina three weeks after his return to New Market, from the journey to Ohio. Mention might be made of the fact that General Peter Muhlenberg, according to a tradition in the Henkel family, personally presented to Paul Henkel the clerical gown which Muhlenberg had worn in the pulpit at Woodstock in 1775, when after preaching his sermon, he threw off his gown and revealed his colonel's uniform. This gown is now preserved in the Krauth Memorial Library of the Lutheran Theological Seminary, at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia.
The Journal was sent in by Henkel to the Ministerium of Pennsylvania as a part of his official report and has remained in the custody of the Ministerium ever since, together with a great deal of similar material. It is now in the care of Dr. Luther F. Reed, Archivarius of the Ministerium, the Archives also being kept in the Library of the Seminary.
The English translation of the Journal is the work of the Rev. F. E. Cooper, formerly of Lima, Ohio, and now of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It is through the courtesy of Dr. Reed that I am permitted to present this substantial contribution to the early religious history of Ohio.
Web site: http://publications.ohiohistory.org/ohstemplate.cfm?action=toc&vol=23