Genealogy Report: Descendants of IVO de TAILLEBOIS, The Earl of Holland (Ratcliffe/Crossgrove Family Line)
Descendants of IVO de TAILLEBOIS, The Earl of Holland (Ratcliffe/Crossgrove Family Line)
Generation No. 1
was born 1036 in either France (Caen in Normandy, or Anjou), or in England (Spalding, Lincolnshire, or Yorkshire)
, and died 1094 in England, probably in the Barony of Kendal (in what is now County Cumbria)
.He married (1) L
.She was born about 1032 in England, and died Unknown.He married (2) L
about 1076 in (Lincolnshire, England?), daughter of THOROLD
MALET.She was born about 1060 in England, perhaps in Alkborough, Lincolnshire
, and died 1136 in England (probably), and was buried in Spalding, Lincolnshire
[The writer's thirtieth great grandfather.]
Ivo de Taillebois, The Earl of Holland and 1st Baron of Kentdale (now Kendal), is the claimed Progenitor in England of our Radclyffe / Ratcliffe family. A published history of Colonial families in America refers to Ivo's parentage in a passage relating to "Margaret Radcliffe, dau. of Sir Edward Radcliffe, who d. 1520, cousin of Queen Katherine Parr, and descended from William the Lion, King of Scotland, and Ivo de Taillebois, son of Fulke, Count of Anjou".[a] Assuming Ivo's birth date to be about 1036, Fulke III (970-1040), the 5th Count, lived too early to be Ivo's father, and Fulke IV (1043-1109), the 7th Count, lived too late. The only Count of Anjou, then, who could have been Ivo's father was the 6th Count, Geoffrey II Martel (1006-1061), but his name was not "Fulke".
On the other hand, "An ancient pedigree of the House of Curwen" styles Ivo not as the son of Fulke, but as "the 'left-handed' (illegitimate) brother of Fulk/Foulque, Earl Anjou, King of Jerusalem".[b; aa; bb] However, the Fulke who became King of Jerusalem was Count Fulke V (1092-1143) of Anjou, and he was born too late to have been Ivo's half-brother. If the ancient pedigree is correct that Ivo was the bastard half-brother of Fulke, it would have to have been Fulke IV "Rechine" (1043-1109), the 7th Count of Anjou, whose life-span was contemporaneous with Ivo's. (This same ancient pedigree records Ivo as being the common ancestor of both the Radclyffe and Curwen families,[b] which later intermarried with each other.)
Under the above construction, one of Ivo's parents would have been either Ermengarde (c.1018-1076), daughter of Fulke III, or her husband, Geoffrey, Count of Gatinais (c.1000-1046). Ivo's being styled "de Taillebois" rather than "de Gatinais" seems to argue against his having been the son of Geoffrey of Gatinais. The writer, therefore, accepts as most likely that Ivo was the issue of an out-of-wedlock union of Ermengarde and a man said to be Reinfred Taillebois, which would make Ivo the illegitimate half-brother of Fulke IV. Whatever the construction, a 1,980-page chart listing the descendants of the Emperor CHARLEMAGNE discloses that Ivo, as a member of the House of Anjou, was clearly a descendant of the Emperor CHARLEMAGNE (742-814).[c] As a descendant of CHARLEMAGNE, Ivo would then also descend from CHARLEMAGNE's forefathers who are documented back to ANTENOR, King of the Cimmerians, who died in about 443 B.C.!
(The historic province of Anjou, with its ancient capital of Angers, is now the Department of Maine-et-Loire. Fulke IV was the grandfather of Ivo's half-grandnephew, Geoffrey Plantagenet [1113-1151], Count of Anjou from 1129. Geoffrey married Princess Matilda, daughter of King HENRY I of England, and became the founder of the English royal dynasty of Plantagenet.)
Of Ivo de Taillebois, Donald Ratcliff, the son of Clarence Earl Ratcliff, historiographer of the Ratcliff family in America, wrote:
"Hundreds of years before the Ratcliffs came to American shores, our ancestor Ivo de Tailbois (or 'John Talbot' in English) arrived in England the same year William the Conqueror overtook the country, 1066. Without doubt Ivo assisted William in the battles that took place and may even have been related to him. Ivo was born about 1022 in Anjou or Normandy, and his brother was the Earl of Anjou. Ivo was known as 'Baron of Kendal.' Ivo married Lucia, a daughter of The Earl Ælfgar. Lucia was clearly of royal line, being the granddaughter of Gruffydd, the King of Wales."[d]
(This ancestry for Lucy has proved inaccurate; her actual parentage has recently been made clear by scholarly research in England. See the narrative for Lucy, Countess of Chester.)
Ivo de Taillebois (literally translated, Ivor Woodcutter) was listed in the DOMESDAY BOOK of 1086-7, the detailed survey of landowners throughout England that was ordered by WILLIAM the Conqueror. Under the Barony of Kendal (then part of Yorkshire), the DOMESDAY BOOK included the following information:
"TALLBOYS, IVO Also called 'cut-bush'. Married Lucy. In charge of siege of Hereward the Wake at Ely, 1069. Steward to William II. Holdings in Lincs. and Norfolk."[e]
Speculation has abounded regarding the birth and death dates for Ivo, Lord Holland. While the year 1094 appears to be established as the date of his death,[f] a definite year for his birth has not been determined with certainty. The conjectured dates of birth range incredibly from 995 to 1075. One source states he was "born 995-1036 in York, England",[b], while another places his birth either "in 1020 or 1040",[d] Other widely conflicting claims as to the date of Ivo's birth and death dates include the following:
· "Ives de Taillebois, Baron of Kendal [born] Abt. 1074 - [died] Abt. 1114 +Lucia Malet [born] Abt. 1044;"[g]
· "Ives De Taillebois, Sheriff of Lincoln, born in Spalding, Lincolnshire, England; died Abt. 1114. He was the son of Foulques IV 'Rechin' d'Anjou, Count and Ermengarde De Chatel-Aillon. He married Lucia Malet in Lincolnshire, England. Lucia Malet, born Abt. 1044 in Alkborough, Lincolnshire, England. She was the daughter ofWilliam Malet and Esilial De Crespin;"[h]
· "Ivo FitzRichard De Roumare Taillebois, born 1036 in Yorkshire, England; died 1094. He married Lucia Ap Gruffydd Malet, born 1040 in Mercia, England; died Unknown in England. She was the daughter of Aelfgar III Of Mercia, Earl Of Mercia and Elfgifu Of Wessex."[i]
· "Ives Taillebois was born in Yorks., England about 1036. Ives died 1094 at age 58."[j]
· "Ives Taillebois, b. 1036, Yorks., England, d. 1094".[k]
While one source states that "Ivo Taillebois died about 1097",[l] the year 1094 appears to be accepted by most as the actual date of Ivo's death. Ivo's age of 58 at the time of his death gives us a birth year of 1036, but the source and accuracy of this information are unknown to the writer. However, a determination of the weight to be given it may be aided by considering the dates of other major events and circumstances in his life. Available records disclose that in 1066 Ivo fought alongside WILLIAM the Conqueror in the Norman Conquest of England;[m] that in 1068 King WILLIAM granted to Ivo the family estates in Lincolnshire and/or Norfolk taken from the Saxon Hereward the Wake;[n] that in 1069-1071 Ivo was in charge of the siege of Hereward at Ely;[e; o] that Ivo, as Steward to King WILLIAM II,[e] was certainly living when that monarch ascended the throne in 1087; and that Ivo reportedly died in 1094. The dates and circumstances of these events, together with Ivo's mother's reported birth date of 1018, suggest that Ivo's birth must indeed have occurred in or about 1036, as at least several other researchers show.[k]
Like the date of Ivo's birth, the place of his birth has also been variously reported. One source claims that he was "born in Anjou or Normandy, France".[d] Another source states, when speaking of Kendal Castle, the home of the Barons of Kendal, that it "was probably constructed by the men of Ivo Taillebois (Ivor Woodcutter), from Caen in Normandy, who was one of [the] region's first barons".[p] As seen above, other researchers claim that he was born in England, either in Yorkshire[s] or in Spalding, Lincolnshire.[r] Although a Norman, Ivo could well have been born in England since there was much movement of people back and forth between France and England before the Conquest. In this regard, the following seems significant:
In 1001, near Ramsey Abbey in the County of Huntingdonshire, a skeleton was unearthed that was believed to be that of the legendary Persian bishop, St Ivo, who had settled in the fen-country of England. The Fens, which cover portions of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, Huntingdonshire, and Norfolk, include the town of St Ives in Huntingdonshire, named after the saint and located eight miles southeast of Ramsey Abbey. That Ivo was named after St Ivo not long after the discovery of the saint's bones suggests that Ivo may in fact have born in the area, and that his birthplace therefore may indeed have been in Spalding, a Lincolnshire town twenty-two miles north of Ramsey Abbey and which, like the Abbey, is located in The Fens.
A composite picture of the life of Ivo, Lord Holland, can be drawn from various early sources, including mediæval manuscripts. One of these, DE GESTIS HERWARDI, or GESTA HEREWARDI, is believed to have been written before 1125 by a reputable monk-historian called Richard who was commissioned to do the work by an authority who may have been Hervey, the first Bishop of Ely (1107-1131).[q] In addition to giving other details about Ivo, this manuscript describes Ivo's support of Duke WILLIAM of Normandy in opposing the Englishman, Hereward the Wake, who took up arms to resist the confiscation of his lands by the French conquerors. The material in this manuscript was based upon Richard's interviews with companions of Hereward's who were still living. From this, and the other early sources, the following picture of Ivo de Taillebois can be gained:
It appears that Ivo began life as the bastard child of Ermengarde de Anjou, a direct descendant of CHARLEMAGNE. Later, Ivo, then in France, "went to England in 1066"[d] at the time of the Norman Conquest, and was a companion in that year of Duke WILLIAM of Normandy at the Battle of Hastings.[r, m] Before sailing to England, WILLIAM and his knights heard Mass in the church at Dives-sur-Mer, Normandy, France, and a plaque there that lists WILLIAM's companions in the invasion includes "Ivo Taillebois".[m] Also listed on the plaque were "Guillaume [William] Taillebois", and "Raoul [Rolf] Taillebois", who were possibly sons but more probably brothers or other relatives of Ivo's.[m] The Battle Abbey Rolls also name "Ivo Taillebois" as one of WILLIAM's companions at the Battle of Hastings.[r] (Battle Abbey, built by WILLIAM in 1094 near Hastings, Sussex, was named after the Battle of Hastings in 1066 which ensured WILLIAM the crown of England.) Finally, other companions of WILLIAM at the Conquest, significant because of Ivo's later marriage to Lucy, included Lucy's grandfather William Malet de Graville, his sons Gilbert de Malet and Robert Malet, and his brother (or another son?) Durand Malet.[r, m]
As one of WILLIAM's Commanders, Ivo would have been amongst the elite who provided WILLIAM with ships, horses, men, and supplies for the invasion of England, in return for which WILLIAM granted them English baronies and earldoms forcibly taken from conquered Saxon lords.[r] The Norman Conquest, estimated at 12,000-men strong, proved victorious at the Battle of Hastings. In that battle, and subsequently, Ivo appears to have served WILLIAM as a loyal and effective fighter. The following description of Ivo, probably fairly accurate, appeared in a 19th-century novel that was itself simply an expanded rewriting of the GESTA HEREWARDI:
"A proud man was Ivo de Tailleboise as he rode next morning out of Spalding Town with a hawk on his fist, hound at heel, and a dozen men-at-arms at his back. . . An adventurer from Anjou, brutal, ignorant, and profligate, low-born too . . . valiant he was, cunning, and skilled in war. Called 'thou old butcher' by King William, he and his group of Angevin [i.e., of Anjou] rutters had fought like tigers by William's side at Hastings".[s]
Following the Conquest, WILLIAM I, now King of all England, rewarded Ivo by making him the Earl of Holland in Lincolnshire.[b] Reportedly, WILLIAM also gave Ivo lands that had belonged to the Earl Ælfgar.[b] Later, Ivo was granted the Castle and Barony of Kentdale (now Kendal),[t] which had been held by the Englishman, Turold (Thorold) of Bucknall, Sheriff of Lincolnshire,[u; l] and which was located in that portion of Yorkshire that later became County Westmorland (now County Cumbria). One source states that "The barony and castle of Kendal, held by Turold, were granted by William I to Ivo de Taillebois."[u] However, another source states that "The earliest records show the Barony of Kentdale being granted to Ivo de Taillebois by William Rufus in 1087".[t] A third source gives further light on the matter:
"The two expeditions of William Rufus to York in 1091 and to Carlisle in 1092, were probably instrumental to the king's grant of all Kentdale, including Beetham and its members, to Ivo Taillebois, who appears to have obtained Kirkby Stephen also."[l]
This grant is disclosed in the documents relating to Ivo's alms gift of various parish churches to St Mary's Abbey, York.[l] It would appear likely that the original grant of the Barony to Ivo was made by WILLIAM the Conqueror, and an additional extensive grant of all the lands of Kentdale was later made to Ivo (between 1087 and 1091) by WILLIAM II Rufus.
Kendal Castle is thought to have been originally "a wooden motte-and-bailey structure [that] was built by the Normans sometime during the early 1100s", and
"was probably constructed by the men of Ivo Taillebois (Ivor Woodcutter), from Caen in Normandy, who was one of [the] region's first barons. A more permanent, stone structure was put up later and new buildings were added at different periods during the castle's history."[p]
HENRY VIII's sixth and last wife, Queen Katherine Parr, was born there in 1512, her grandfather William Parr having acquired the Castle. In about the mid-sixteenth century the Parr family abandoned the Castle as a residence, and in 1553, on order of the Crown, a portion of the Castle was dismantled.[p] In 1578 a civil servant, Edward Bradyll, reported to the Royal Treasury that, "the said castle was in utter rein and decay not repairable and in all worthy to be sold for fowerscore punds" (i.e., £80).[p]
The Lincolnshire lands given to Ivo by WILLIAM included the family estates at Bourne of the Saxon patriot, Hereward the Wake, as previously mentioned. Upon Hereward's return to Bourne in 1068, he became enraged when he found that his lands had been given to Ivo de Taillebois, and his brother's decapitated head had been impaled above the entrance. That very night, Hereward armed himself and slew fifteen Norman soldiers, impaling their heads in place of his brother's.[n]
Hereward is renowned for his heroic achievements in resisting the encroachments of WILLIAM I as the latter sought to solidify his conquest of England. [q, o] In 1070, King WILLIAM appointed a Norman abbot for Peterborough Abbey in place of the Saxon Abbot Turold. At this, Hereward the Wake and his followers revolted against King WILLIAM, sacked Peterborough Abbey, and then fled to the Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire, where a large number of refugees gathered round Hereward.[q] The following passage is from a 13th-century manuscript:
"AD 1071. The Earls Edwin, Morcar and Siward with Egelwin, Bishop of Durham, associated themselves with many thousand disaffected persons and rebels against William the First.. . . finally [they] seek a place of refuge in the Isle of Ely. There, under the leadership of Hereward the Wake, they make frequent sallies and do much damage . . ."[v]
The Isle of Ely had remained a "pocket of resistance"[n] as WILLIAM sought to complete his conquest of England. (Ely was at that time an "isle" of land on a hill surrounded by marshland.)
In 1071, King WILLIAM, with Ivo leading his army, besieged the Isle,[q] and in the course of the siege, Hereward shot an arrow through WILLIAM's shield, pinning it to his breast. Ivo is credited with having saved WILLIAM's life.[b] Later, Hereward, who had escaped capture during the siege,[o] was caught and placed in fetters in the custody of Robert de Horepol, at Bedford. A year later King WILLIAM was inclined to set Hereward free . .
"But the Earl de Warenne and Robert Malet and Ivo de Taillebois remained hostile to him, dissuading the king from setting him free from custody, declaring that it was because of him that the country was not pacified."[q]
At this, Hereward's warder, Robert de Horepol, exclaimed:
" 'Alas, alas! Soon now, through the machinations of Ivo de Taillebois, this man once renowned for hosts of soldiers and the leader and lord of so many very eminent men, is to be taken from here and delivered into the hands of a detestable man and sent to the castle of Rockingham'."[q]
Other accounts of Ivo also are not exactly superlative in their flattery. An early history spoke of accusations made by Ivo as having ruined Ulfketul, the Saxon Abbot of Croyland Abbey, so that Ingulphus could be installed in his place. Ingulphus, who had been secretary to WILLIAM the Conqueror, was an Englishman who had been bred in Normandy. Showing kindness to the ejected Ulfketul, Ingulphus said, "Seeing that this venerable person was worthy of all favor and filial love, and was distinguished for his most holy piety, I had him placed in his ancient [Abbot's] stall", after which Ingulphus considered himself sort of a sub-Abbot during the remainder of Ulfketul's lifetime.[w]
The common Saxon people over whom Ivo ruled in his Earldom seemingly had little love for their master whom they "supplicated as their lord on their bended knees" and who "tortured and harassed, worried and annoyed, incarcerated and tormented them".[w] The people were not the only recipients of Ivo's allegedly abusive treatment. It was said that Ivo
"would follow the various animals of the people of Croyland in the marshes with his dogs; drive them to a great distance, drown them in the lakes, mutilate some in the tail, others in the ear; while often, by breaking the feet and the legs of the beasts of burden, he would render them utterly useless".[w]
Such, at least, was the Englishmen's perception of Ivo, biased as it probably was.
Ivo, Lord Holland, apparently married twice. The above-mentioned ancient pedigree of the Curwen family states that he was "married to Gondreda, Countess of Warwick".[b; aa; bb] Presumably after Lady Gondreda's death, WILLIAM I, having granted to Ivo the Barony of Kentdale that previously had belonged to Turold of Bucknall, also gave Turold's daughter, Lucy, to Ivo as his second wife. At this, Ivo is said to have remarked, "I have her father's lands, why not have the daughter too?"[b]
The question arises as to who were the children of Ivo de Taillebois, and indeed whether he had any children at all. According to one source, Ivo never had issue:
"One of the earliest Barons of Kirkby Kendal in Westmorland was Ivo Taillebois who came with William the Conqueror, but had no children so his title and estates were left to his brother, Gerard".[x]
Another genealogist states that many researchers now believe that Ivo and Lucy Malet, who later became the Countess of Chester, did not have issue, but whether or not Ivo had children by Lady Gondreda is not mentioned.[y] According to the Oxford scholar Lady Katherine Keats-Rohan, Ivo and Lucy did, in fact, have issue, but apparently only one child, a daughter named Beatrice. This source states that
"the lordship of Spalding and other places in Lincolnshire were held after Ivo's death not by Beatrice, his direct heir and the daughter of his marriage to Lucy, but by the later husbands of Lucy".[z]
Two other sources name as Ivo's children Ælftred de Tailbois,[b; cc] "The Englishman", born in 1045,[d] and Lucy de Tailbois.[b; dd] Regarding Lucy de Taillebois, the first source states that "Lucia [Ivo's wife] had one child, a daughter named Lucia, who married twice", and the second source has the daughter Lucy de Taillebois marrying Ranulph de Meschines, her mother's third husband.[dd] Thus, it seems clear that the two Lucys were actually one and the same person, Ivo's wife.
As for Ælftred de Taillebois, one source cites a published genealogy of the Southworth family according to which
"Lucy obtained the parental estates and married Yvon Taylboys, earl of Angiers in France, and baron of Kendal . . . [the Southworth genealogy] gives her no children by Taylboys, but mentions children by her second and third husbands . . . mentions a son, Eltret or Ughtud [i.e., Ælftred], living in 1106, as if he were the son of Yvon Taylboys. . . Documents . . confirm Eltret's or Ughtud's son was Ketel or Chetel, whose son was Gilbert, whose son was William FitzGilbert".[ee]
Ælftred, then would appear to be the son of Ivo by his first wife, Lady Gondreda. Ælftred's reported birthdate of 1045 is in conflict with a birthdate of 1036 for Ivo, which would make him aged nine in 1045. A reconciliation of the dates must remain unresolved at present. One further point: Some records also name as Ivo's son Nicholas FitzGilbert de Tailbois, born in "1097 or 1100", but he was more probably Ivo's great-grandson.[d] One further presumed relative of Ivo's, perhaps a sister, would appear to be Matilda Taillebois, born 1044 in Normandy, who married Hugh Beauchamp, born 1040 in Normandy,[dd] whose descendants became the Earls of Warwick.
Based on his extensive research and that of a professional genealogist, Charles Hampson concludes that Ivo was succeeded in the Barony of Kentdale
"by his son, Ælftred, called the Englishman, whose eldest son and subsequent successor was Gilbert de Furnesco. Gilbert by his wife Goditha had two sons. The elder was William de Lancaster and the younger Nicholas de Radeclive".[aa]
The writer accepts the descent given by Hampson, absent the discovery of contrary evidence.
Further information regarding the life and death of Ivo, Lord Holland, has not been found. Whether or not he was as described by the novelist, "An adventurer from Anjou, brutal, ignorant, and profligate, low-born too . . . valiant he was, cunning, and skilled in war",[s] his place in the history of England is secure.
a. George Norbury MacKenzie, ed., COLONIAL FAMILIES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. V (1912; reprint Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1995) p. 492.
b.Deborah Thornsbury Keser, in her Web site, THORNSBERRY GENEALOGY; Website: (http://www.aros.net/~deboraht/genealogy.htm).
c. "Descendants of Charlemagne des Francs, King" in BRUNER/NIX GENEALOGY, Web site of Elmer Gene Bruner (firstname.lastname@example.org), 6345 Fennwood Drive, Zachary, La., 70791: <http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/ftm/b/r/u/Elmer-G-Bruner/index.html>; p. 1,941.
d. Donald Ratcliff, ANCESTORS OF RICHARD RATCLIFF OF LANCASHIRE, ENGLAND, AND TALBOT COUNTY, MARYLAND: ADDENDUM TO CLARENCE RATCLIFF'S GENEALOGY; Website: http://don.ratcliff.net/tree/; covers the Radclyffe/Ratcliffe descendancy from Ivo de Taillebois (b. c.1020/40) to Richard Ratcliffe (b. 1614); data based on Dr A. Wayne Ratcliff's eleven-year research that included two trips to England and the hiring of a professional genealogist.
e. THE DOMESDAY BOOK: "Landowners"; URL: http://www.domesdaybook.co.uk/landowners.html.
f. John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, THE OXFORD ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THE BRITISH MONARCHY (Oxford, England, and New York : Oxford University Press, 1998); as cited in ROYAL ANCESTORS OF SOME LDS FAMILIES, by Michael L. Call, Chart 438; Web site: http://222.genpc.com/gen/gen_files/main.html.
g. "Descendants of Charlemagne des Francs, King", op. cit.; p. 1,941;
h. "Ancestors of Helen Marie Nix" in BRUNER/NIX GENEALOGY, op. cit.
i. THE MITCHELL/CHARAMUT HOME PAGE; Web site of Robert Mitchell, Forest Lakes, Arizona (email@example.com); URL: (http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/ftm/m/i/t/Robert-Mitchell/GENE3-0093.html?Welcome=984608718).
j. ANCESTORS OF ROBERT C. BRADLEY; Web site of Robert Bradley, P.O. Box 1066, Alpharetta, Georgia, 30009 (firstname.lastname@example.org); URL: http://www.unf.edu/~rbradl/ancestor/index.htm#toc.
k. SMOKY MOUNTAIN ANCESTRAL QUEST: IVO; Web site of David L. Beckwith; URL: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/.
l. William Farrer Litt, RECORDS OF KENDALE, vol. 1, edited by John F. Curwen; published on the Internet at URL: http://edenlinks.rootsweb.com/lgp/RECORDS/FAR/INTRO. HTM.
m. LIST OF KNIGHTS ACCOMPANYING WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR ON HIS INVASION OF ENGLAND, 1066, by Robert Bunker, Hong Kong; Website: http://www.geocities.com/blainenay/1066.htm.
See also COMPANIONS OF DUKE WILLIAM AT HASTINGS; Website: http://www.genealogyweb.com/norman.htm; this list is "a combination of all the known Battell Abbey Rolls".
n. CITY OF ELY Website; Web site telling of the City of Ely; URL: http://www.ely.org.uk/heros/Hereward1.html.
o. "Famous Cambridgeshire Men and Women," in CAMBRIDGESHIRE GENEALOGY (An England GenWeb Project Website); http://www.rootsweb.com/~engcam/famspple.htm#hereward.
p. "Kendal Castle" at KENDAL, CUMBRIA Web site; URL: http://www.argonet.co.uk/ftm/lakes/ken.html.
q. DE GESTIS HERWARDI SAXONIS (or GESTA HEREWARDI), Peterborough Cathedral Manuscript 1, ff. 320-39; translated into modern English and published on the Internet as: Stephen Knight and Thomas H. Ohlgren, ed., HEREWARD THE WAKE (Kalamazoo, Mich.: Western Michigan University for TEAMS, 1997); URL: http://docserver.ub.rug.nl/camelot/teams/hereward.htm; originally published in ROBIN HOOD AND OTHER OUTLAW TALES.
r. COMPANIONS OF DUKE WILLIAM AT HASTINGS, op. cit.
s. Charles Kingsley, 1819-1875, HEREWARD THE WAKE : "LAST OF THE ENGLISH", 2 vols., with an introduction by Maurice Kingsley (1866; reprint New York: J.F. Taylor, 1898) vol. II, chap. XXI, p. 1; as cited in THORNSBERRY GENEALOGY, op. cit.
t. A SHORT HISTORY OF KENDAL in the Website of The Glen Guest House, Oxenholme, Kendal, Cumbria (http://www.smoothhound.co.uk/hotels/glen2.html). Also see THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA (Chicago: The Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1966) vol. 13, p. 28.
u. THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA (Chicago: The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1966) vol. 13, p. 280: KENDAL, a market town and municipal borough in Westmorland, Eng., 22 mi. N. of Lancaster.
v. Matthew Paris, CHRONICA MAJORS, compiled in the 13th century; as cited in "Famous Cambridgeshire Men and Women" in CAMBRIDGESHIRE GENEALOGY, An England GenWeb Project Website: http://www.rootsweb.com/~engcam/famspple.htm#hereward.
w. Charles Knight (1791-1873), THE POPULAR HISTORY OF ENGLAND : AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF SOCIETY AND GOVERNMENT FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD TO OUR OWN TIMES, vol. 1, From the invasion of Caesar to the end of the reign of Edward III (London: Bradbury and Evans, 1856) chaps. XIV, XV; Charles Knight Collection, Hallward Library, University of Nottingham Library; Website at URL: http://aleph.nottingham.ac.uk:4505/ALEPH.
x. Melatiah Everett Dwight, THE KIRBYS OF NEW ENGLAND (New York: Trow Printing, 1898) p. 3; FHC microfilm #1429854, Item 8; quoted in ENGLAND, the Website of Betti Paull (email@example.com); URL: http://members.tripod.com/~adriannehopkins/england.htm.
y. "More Ratcliff Branches" in LINNIE VANDERFORD POYNEER's Website; URL: http://www.geocities.com/linniev2/gp/ratcliff2.html.
z. Katherine S.B. Keats-Rohan, "Antecessor Noster: The Parentage of Countess Lucy Made Plain" in PROSOPON: NEWSLETTER OF THE UNIT FOR PROSOPOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, no. 2 (May 1995) © Linacre College, Oxford; Website: http://www.linacre.ox.ac.uk/research/prosop/PRSPN2.stm.
aa. Charles P. Hampson, THE BOOK OF THE RADCLYFFES (Edinburgh: Privately printed by T. and A. Constable, Ltd., at the University Press, 1940) p. 297; regarding Ivo de Taillebois and his descendants, Hampson states, "VIDE [i.e., see] Kuerden's MSS. in Chetham's Library, Manchester".
bb. CHETHAM'S LIBRARY (Web site: http://www.chethams.org.uk/); Chetham's library, Long Millgate, Manchester, M31SB, England; the Curwen pedigree will be found in the Library's MSS at: "C.6.1-3 KUERDEN, Richard (1623-90?) (1-2) 2 vols. of notes for the History of Lancashire. Proposed History by Richard Kuerden and Christopher Towneley (3) Index to the Chetham folio and quarto volumes by R.T. Hampson and W. Dobson 1850s".
cc. SAHLIN : OUR FAMILY HISTORY; Web site of Ingvar Sahlin, Sweden (firstname.lastname@example.org), URL: http://www.gbrf.com/genealog4/sahlin/home.htm.
dd. DESCENDANTS OF IVES TAILLEBOIS; Website of David Thaler, 10605, 171st Ct., NE, Redmond, Wa., 98052 (email@example.com); URL: http://www.armidalesoftware.com/issue/full/Thaler_AEX_main.html.
ee. Samuel Gilbert Webber, A GENEALOGY OF THE SOUTHWORTHS (SOUTHARDS): DESCENDANTS OF CONSTANT SOUTHWORTH, WITH A SKETCH OF THE FAMILY IN ENGLAND (Boston: The Fort Hill Press, S. Usher, 1905) p. 432 (footnote); as cited in Frederick Lewis Weis, ANCESTRAL ROOTS OF CERTAIN AMERICAN COLONISTS WHO CAME TO AMERICA BEFORE 1700, 7th ed. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., c1992) 34:24, 132A:26, 246B:25; and as quoted in the STEVENS/SOUTHWORTH/MEDIEVAL DATABASE Website: http://www.gendex.com/ftm/jast/index.html#Welcom.
dd. World Family Tree, vol. 1, Pedigree #986; CD V701_01; (c) 1995 Broderbund Software, Inc.
[The writer's thirtieth great-grandmother?]
Much of what is believed about Lady Lucy (or Lucia), Countess of Chester, remains unsubstantiated, and diligent attempts have long been made to determine decisively her identity and ancestry. We find her first as the young wife of Ivo de Taillebois, Companion of WILLIAM the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings. In recognition of his services, WILLIAM granted Ivo not only the lands and title formerly belonging to the Saxon Baron of Kentdale (Kendal), but the Baron's daughter Lucy as well. Of Lucy, his second wife, Ivo is said to have remarked, "I have her father's lands, why not have the daughter too?"[a] It is recorded that Lady Lucy married twice again after Ivo's death, first to Roger FitzGerold de Roumare, and last to Ranulf de Meschines, 4th Earl of Chester.[b]
Regarding her ancestry, a scholarly account of the Earls of Chester speaks of
". . . the marriage of the 4th earl of Chester, Ranulf de Meschin to the English woman Lucy. Much time has been spent trying to identify who Lucy was. There would appear to be two separate views of her antecedents. It is agreed that she was related to the family of Ælfgar but either as Ælfgar's daughter or a Lincolnshire niece."[c]
Another account states that
"It is unclear as to who her parents were. One tradition is that she is the daughter of Aelfgifu and Aelfgar. However, the more modern view is that she was related to them via Thorold, sheriff of Lincoln."[c]
These two traditions concerning Lucy's ancestry agree that she was related to Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia, son of Leofric and Lady Godgifu / Godiva, the Earl and Countess of Mercia.[c] The most common variation of the older tradition held that she was the daughter of the Earl Ælfgar and his wife Ælfgifu, who was the granddaughter of ETHELRED the Unready, King of England.[b, c] The later view places Lucy as Ælfgar's niece, the daughter of Ælfgar's brother Thorold/Turold of Bucknall, Lincolnshire, Earl of Leicester and Sheriff of Lincoln[d] in the time of ETHELRED's son, St EDWARD the Confessor, who reigned from 1042 to 1066.[b, c, d]
Turold / Thorold / Thorkell of Bucknall in Lincoln, the Earl of Leicester and Sheriff of Lincolnshire, was the son of Alwin (Aluredus) and a brother (stated as "near kinsman") of Ælfgar / Algar II, seventh Earl of Mercia. Thorold, a Saxon, is believed by some to have had strong Norman blood through his mother, perhaps explaining why he retained his considerable lands in Warwickshire after the Conquest.[d]
The uncertainty relating to Lady Lucy's parentage appears finally to have been resolved by research in 1995 by an Oxford scholar, Lady Katherine Keats-Rohan, that offers compelling evidence in support of the claim that
"there can be no doubt that the 'mysterious' Countess Lucy of Chester was William Malet's thrice-married granddaughter, the daughter of Robert Malet's sister and Turold the Sheriff of Lincoln".[e]
Lady Keats-Rohan goes on to say that Lucy and her first husband, Ivo de Taillebois, founded a priory at Spalding, Lincolnshire, which was subject to the Abbey of St Nicholas at Angers in the French Province of Anjou. In a phrase in the Register of Spalding Priory, it is stated that
" 'mortuo quia dicto Thoraldo relicta sibi herede Lucia predicta' [at his death Thorold left an heir, the aforesaid Lucy]."[e]
In another phrase in the Register, Lucy said that gifts given by her to the Priory were
" 'pro redempcione anime patris mei et matris mee et dominorum meorum et parentum meorum' [for the redemption of the souls of my father and mother, my husbands, and my ancestors]."[e]
Finally, in yet another phrase in the Register, Lucy and Ivo referred to
" 'antecessorum suorum Turoldi scilicet uxorisque eius regine' [our forerunners, namely Thorold and the lady his wife]."[e]
The word "antecessor" was used in similar documents of that era to mean "parent".
These passages from the Spalding Priory Register seem clearly to put to rest the confusion concerning Lucy's parentage, and Lady Keats-Rohan thus concludes that
"Lucy's parents were indeed Turold the Sheriff and a daughter of William Malet".[e]
Having established Lucy's parentage, Lady Keats-Rohan then reconstructs Lucy's descent in this way (except for Durand, who others hold was William Malet's brother,[f 35] not his son):[e]
Leofric, Earl of Mercia=Lady Godiva/Godwa/Godgifu
Robert Malet=(Dau. of Leofric)
Durand MaletWilliam Malet = Hesilia (Esilia) Crispin
Robert MaletGilbert Malet[Dau.] Malet = ThoroldBeatrice Malet=[Dau.] Malet =
|of BucknallRibaldAlfred of Lincoln
Lucy = Ivo de TailleboisAlan of Lincoln
By this construction, Lucy was the great-great-granddaughter of the famed Lady Godiva who rode naked through Coventry to protest the overtaxation of the people by her husband, the Earl Leofric of Mercia (d. 1057).
Lucy's grandfather, William Malet, "Sire de Graville", was from Graville Sainte Honorine, located between Le Havre and Harfleur on the coast of the Province of Normandy (now the Department of Seine-Maritime), France.[f] It is believed, as seen above, that William's parents were the Norman Robert Malet and a daughter of Leofric, the English Earl of Mercia, and his wife, Lady Godiva.
Although his heritage included both the French and Saxon sides, William's fealty was to WILLIAM the Conqueror of whom he was a companion in the Norman Conquest, and for whom he fought valiantly at the Battle of Hastings.[f] Following the Battle, which saw the defeat of HAROLD, the English King, William, who may have been related to HAROLD through his mother, was entrusted by Duke WILLIAM to undertake the burial of the defeated monarch. William chose a site on a cliff above the beach at Hastings where HAROLD had attempted so courageously to defend his country. Atop the pile of stones under which HAROLD was buried, William placed a rock on which was engraved:
"By command of the Duke, you rest here a King, O Harold, that you may be guardian still of the shore and sea".[f]
William, who later became the Sheriff of York, gained land holdings in Suffolk and Norfolk, in addition to the lands in Lincolnshire that he and his brother Durand held before the Conquest.[f] It is believed that William died in 1071 in the marshland surrounding the Isle of Ely while fighting to put down the Saxon rebellion led by Hereward the Wake. The Domesday Book states simply that ". . . he went into the marsh . . . on the King's service, where he died".[f]
Lucy herself "was an important enough person to have married into the upper echelons of the Norman aristocracy . .",[b] and "was a pivotal person in the development of an Anglo Norman aristocracy".[b] As mentioned above, her first marriage, apparently at a young age, was to Ivo de Taillebois,[c] Earl of Holland, Baron of Kentdale (Kendal), companion of WILLIAM I at the Norman Conquest, and a steward to King WILLIAM II. Only one child, Beatrice de Taillebois, seems to have been born to Lucy and Ivo,[e] although many researchers hold that Ivo's heir and successor as Baron of Kendal, Ælftred de Taillebois, was also born of Lucy and Ivo's union. If this is correct, Lady Lucy rather than Lady Gondreda would be the writer's thirtieth great-grandmother.
After Ivo's death, Lucy married Roger de Roumare,[c] by whom she bore a son, William de Roumare (b. c.1096--d. before 1161),[c] who was made the Earl of Lincoln in 1141.[g]Lucy's third husband was the powerful Ranulf le Meschin (d. c.1129),[c, h] Viscount of Bayeux and 4th Earl of Chester. The immense influence of the Earls of Chester, who enjoyed semi-regal powers and were largely exempt from the scope of the King's Government, arose primarily out of the great estates known collectively as the Honour of Chester, which extended into more than twenty shires including Lincolnshire and the midland counties. To Lucy and Ranulf was born a son, Ranulf de Gernons (c.1100-1153),[c, h] the proud and unscrupulous 5th Earl of Chester, who, with his half-brother William de Roumare, played a most important part in the civil wars of King STEPHEN's reign during the 1130s and 40s. Through marriage, Lucy became "the link between the powerful late Mercian dynasty and the equally powerful Norman earl of Chester dynasty".[c]
a.Deborah Thornsbury Keser, in her Web site, THORNSBERRY GENEALOGY; Website: (http://www.aros.net/~deboraht/genealogy.htm).
b."People" in MEASHAM AND THE MEASE VALLEY TO 1300 AD, History Project Website
c."Norman and Post Conquest: The Earls of Chester" in HISTORY PROJECT Website
d.WARWICK - WARWICKSHIRE - THE DOMESDAY BOOK IN 1086; URL: http://www.family2001.com/warwick/warwick2.htm; © 1996 Hall of Names International, Inc.;
e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
e.Katherine S.B. Keats-Rohan, "Antecessor Noster: The Parentage of Countess Lucy Made Plain" in PROSOPON: NEWSLETTER OF THE UNIT FOR PROSOPOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, no. 2 (May 1995) © Linacre College, Oxford; published on the Internet at : http://www.linacre.ox.ac.uk/research/prosop/PRSPN2.stm.
f."William Malet, Companion of William the Conqueror, 1066" in MALLETT FAMILY HISTORY, Website ofBob Mallett, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, e-mail: email@example.com; URL: http://www.ott.igs.net/~rhmallett/index.htm.
g."Lincoln" in ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, Vol. 14 (Chicago, Lond, Toronto: The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1966) p. 45.
h."Chester" in ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, Vol. 5 (Chicago, Lond, Toronto: The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1966) pp. 469-470.
of IVO TAILLEBOIS and GONDREDA
, b. about 1054, Anjou or Normandy, France; d. Unknown.
of IVO TAILLEBOIS and L
, b. about 1080; d. Unknown.