Families of Forrest /Paul/Oehman/Werner/Idol/Chipman/Hauser:Information about (6G) Jerome (Jeremiah) Dumas Dr.
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(6G) Jerome (Jeremiah) Dumas Dr. (b. 1681, d. January 1733/34)(6G) Jerome (Jeremiah) Dumas Dr. (son of (7G) Jeremie Dumas and (7G) Susanne Faure) was born 1681 in D'Antrargus, Andeche, France, and died January 1733/34 in Fire Creek, Goochland Co., Va..He married (6G) Unity ( Lucy) Smith, daughter of (7G) George Smith and (7G) Mary White.
Notes for (6G) Jerome (Jeremiah) Dumas Dr.:
Dr. Jerome Dumas (Anglicized to Jeremiah) was born about 1681 in D'Antrargus in the Province of Andeche, France. He came to America, arriving in Jamestown, Virginia, July 31, 1700. He sailed from England April 19, 1700 to come to Manikan Town, Virginia to join other Huguenots who sought refuge from religious intolerance. From Douglas Register, Volume 6, page 65/ List of refuges: aboard ship "Mary Ann".
*Source: The Tidewater Harris Family of Virginia by Virginia Lee Hutcheson Davis.
(Copied, extracted and sent to me by Ruth Newlan, May 20, 2003.)
This couple became Quakers and had eleven children.
===============[PorterFamily.FTW] Source: Nehemiah Adair Cravens, Sr. Rootsweb.com
PART I - DUMAS IN VIRGINIA
The Huguenots were a group of Protestants who became the center of political and religious quarreling in France during the 16th and 17th century. They were greatly influenced by the religious teaching of the Protestant reformer Jean (John) Calvin. Huguenots were made to suffer terribly for their belief and thousands were tortured, killed, and deprived of their rights and property. Protestant movements caused civil wars throughout 16th Century Europe.
In 1587 a Protestant, Henry of Navarre, adopted Catholicism when he became King Henry IV. Under his reign, in 1598, the Edict of Nantes was issued to grant the Huguenots religious freedom, however this protection was temporary. Religious pressure to compel Catholic uniformity combined with political motives to obtain Protestant-held lands and property. After the Edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV in 1685, it is estimated that about 400,000 Huguenots fled France for England and later to America.2
King William of the House of Orange was deeply grateful to his French Huguenot allies who had contributed so effectively to his success, and wished to establish them and others in Virginia. He gave the group of Huguenots £3,000 and procurred from the Protestant Relief Fund in London the gift of £12,000 for their equipment. The largest party of Huguenots were bound for ManakinTowne in the Colony of Virginia. The first ship, the Mary and Ann, sailed from the river Thames in the spring of 1700, with Claude Phillip de Richbourg, led by Marquis de La Muce.3
R. A. Brock wrote in his "Huguenot Emigration", that in 1700, simore than 500 emigrant Huguenots, at the head of whom was the Ma~guis de la Muce, were landed in Virginia by tour successive debarkations". Others write that the number is said to have been more than 700. Jerome Dumas, the immigrant ancestor of this genealogy, was one of 207 French Huguenot refugees on board the Mary and Ann, which left England on the 19th of April, 1700, and landed at James Town Virginia on 3lJuly, l700.~
This group of Huguenots was settled on 10,000 acres of land, formerly occupied by the extinct tribe of Monacan (Manakin) Indians. Captain John Smith had learned of the Monacan in the course of an exploratory trip which he made up the James River in 16Q7~. By the year 1700, the Monacan tribe had been driven away. The new Huguenot settlement was named "Manakin-Towne" for this tribe. It was located on the south side of the James River, twenty miles west of Richmond, Virginia in what is now Powhatan County. It was originally in Henrico County (1700-1728) and later in Goochiand County (1728-1749). Many of the beautiful old French names, which were later Anglicized, appear in the court records of these counties. Jerome Dumas' name is listed in later records as "Jeremiah Dumas" and will hence forth be referred to as such. The immigrants were admitted to full citizenship immediately upon arrival, with the right to worship God as they chose and under ministers of their own selection, and they were exempted from taxation.
Manakin Church and King William Parish were established in 1700 for the French Protestant refugees who had settled at ManakinTowne. The "Huguenot Parish", as it came to be called, was created to enable the Huguenots to have their own church and pastor and to set their own tithes. The church was always open and although the services were in French, the denomination was of the English or Anglican (later Episcopal) faith. The first minister was Benjamin De Joux. The settlement managed to preserve its individuality and for many years, there were still many who spoke only French.
The Huguenot Society of the Founders of Manakin was founded in 1922 and its membership consists of the men and women who are the descendants of a Manakin Huguenot Founder or, of descent from a Huguenot resident of Virginia prior to 1786. The Society owns some 400 acres next to the church grounds, along Route 711 east of Manakin. They meet regularly at the Society's National Headquarters building on their property in Powhatan County Virginia. There is a Huguenot library and also the Manakin Episcopal Church. The descendants of these courageous people may still worship here. A few years ago1 my husband, Grady Dumas, who is a member of the Huguenot Society of the Founders of Manakin, and I attended a very impressive service which was partly in French.
Jeremiah Dumas and Unity were married ca 1702. John H. Wilson stated in his history6, that Unity's surname was Smith and that she was an English woman and a descendent of Governor Sir George Yeardley of Virginia and Lady Temperance Flowerdew (great-grand parents). He acquired the information from a Dumas historian that Unity's grandparents were Major Joseph Croshaw and Elizabeth Yeardley and her parents were George Smith and Mary White.
Wilson writes that he and his researchers found no information to prove the pedigree from Sir George Yeardley (or Yardley) to Unity. Although I am unable to verify that Unity's name was Smith, I did locate a deed in Goochiand County (then Hanover) in which is written1 "Unity wife of Jeremiah ~7, thus documenting that her first name was "Unity".
In 1703, Jeremiah was living in New Kent County Virginia in St. Peter's Parish. The baptism of their child is recorded in the church records as "Mathew daut of Jeremiah Dumas baptiz ye' 10: Oct 1703,1.8 This translates to read, "Mathew, daughter of Jeremiah Dumas, baptised the 10th of Oct 1703". Since the child's name is Mathew, it is assumed that the word "daughter" is a misprint and should have read "son".
Historically, from the earliest time, the Dumas family had very strong religious feelings. My research revealed that the early Dumases were of the Quaker belief. In court records I found written, ... "Benjamin Dumas, Benjamin Harris and David Dumas, quakers, came into Court and affirmed"... .9 This was the David Dumas, Jeremiah's grandson, that would later render material aid and services to the Revolutionary War effort in lieu of fighting, an act which could certainly verify his Quaker belief because Quakers did not bear arms.
Because English Quakers had also sought religious freedom and refuge in Virginia, they were closely associated with the Huguenot refugees. Some of Jeremiah and Unity's children married Quakers. Other family historians write that Unity and Jeremiah Dumas' daughter, Sarah married a Benjamin Harris, so the above mentioned Benjamin Harris could very well have been Sarah's husband who "came into court" with his father in-law, Benjamin Dumas (I) and brother in-law, David Dumas (I), to "affirm", since Quaker belief does not permit swearing. Malcolm H. Harris wrote in his history of Louisa County that Benjamin and John Harris were Huguenots of Manikintowne and that the Harrises were closely allied with the Huguenots. It is also noteworthy that Unity's name and the names that she and Jeremiah gave their children were certainly associated with the Quaker people.
It appears that Jeremiah may have moved often, but this was not the case. The counties in which he lived had changed names and occasionally, their boundaries also. It is very helpful to know that New Kent County was formed in 1654 and Hanover County was created in 1720 from New Kent. Goochland County was created in 1727 from Henrico (an original shire), and Louisa County was created in 1742 from Hanover. In 1703, Jeremiah's land was in New Kent County and he was living in St. Peter's Parish.
The earliest land grants were made while the county was still a part of New Kent. Jeremiah Dumas is listed on the 1704 Quit Rent Rolls of Virginia as receiving 250 acres of land in New Kent County Virginia12. At this time, he was living in St. Peter's Parish, which was established in 1679.
St. Peter's (commonly called the "Brick Church") was new, the construction having begun in 1701 and completed in 1703. St. Peter's is also known as the "First Church of the First Lady". Martha Curtis worshipped here until the time of her marriage to George Washington in St. Peter's, on January 6, 1759. How facinating to know that our ancestor, Mathew Dumas was baptized in the church that our nation's first president's wedding would take place!
In the spring of 1984, my husband, Grady Dumas and daughter, Elizabeth and I drove through the beautiful woodlands of Virginia on a venture to find St. Peter's Church where Mathew Dumas, the first child of Jeremiah and Unity Dumas, was christened. I had spent the previous winter studying maps of New Kent and the surrounding counties to familiarize myself with the area, for it was my desire to locate where the immigrant ancestor, Jeremiah Dumas and his family had lived.
By referring to the Vestry Book of St. Paul's Parish and the Vestry Book and Register of St. Peter's Parish, and using county maps, I would attempt to locate Jeremiah's land. Descriptions from deeds, resulting from the sales and purchases of land, gave me the approximate locations. "Pamunkey River", "Black Creek", "Machumps Creek", "Tottopotomoy", "Sink Quart", "Chickahomany Swamp" and "Polegreen"s Old Field" ... these are the beautifully descriptive names, listed in the Vestry Book, that led us on our journey.
Nearing our destination, we made our way along a tree-lined road and saw, glowing in the afternoon sun, the faded old brick of the ancient St. Peter's Church. We learned from the grounds-keeper that the church was still in use and had recently celebrated Easter services. On entering the church, we were awed by its beauty. There is a marble wall-monument on the south side of the chancel, which was sculpted in 1737 by Michael Sidnell of Bristol, England. One of the oldest of the few such monuments in America, it honors vestryman William Chamberlayne whose son,~Richard, introduced Col. George Washington to Mrs. Martha Curtis!
After exploring the church inside, we found the old cemetery, near the church's east and south wall. The silent colonial tombs stand witness to an earlier time, when families were large, many children did not reach adulthood, and adults died young. The eloquent gravestone inscriptions, now almost illegible from age1 bore messages of love for family members that had been taken from their midst. As we reluctantly prepared to leave, I was overcome with sadness for this church.
Like most of his neighbors, Jeremiah Dumas was a planter, his crop, most likely tobacco. During the colonial period, the English King had encouraged settlements and farming of the fertile land in the Colony of Virginia, and tobacco was the main crop. Malcolm H. Harris wrote in his history of Louisa County Virginia:
"Tobacco was bought up by the merchants and shipped to England. The main shipping points for Louisa (county) tobacco were from Page's Wharf or Hanovertown, Fredericksburg, or Shaccoes (Richmond). Great hogsheads13 were packed and rolled to the wharves, inspected by government men and loaded on vessels. These vessels brought over such goods as were needed by the colonists and took back (to England) tobacco".14
In the Church of England (later to become the Protestant Episcopal Church), a "vestry" consisted of a body of persons entrusted with the administration of the temporal affairs of a parish. The ves~ry was composed of a rector, two wardens or officers, and a variable number of vestrymen elected annually at parish meetings. St. Peter's Church originated from a petition at a vestry held August 13, 1700:
"Where as the Lower Church of this Parifh is very much out of Repaire and Standeth very inconvenient for moft of the Inhabitants of the Said parifh Therefore ordered that as Soon as Conveniently may be a new Church of Brick---be built and Erected"15
St. Peter's cost the people 146,000 weight of tobacco. During Jeremiah Dumas' lifetime, tobacco represented money and a man's financial status was gauged by the amount of tobacco that he had, either growing in the field or in his sheds. The complete requirements for the building of the church are listed in the Parish Vestry Book of St. Peter's, beginning on page 68.
St. Peters Church is now again, "very much out of repair and stands inconveniently to the inhabitants". On page XV of the introduction to the transcription of the Vestry Book of St. Paul's parish,16 C. G. Chamberlayne describes the archaic term, "processionin~ of land":
~Each one of the parish vestry books still in existence has perhaps something of peculiar interest attaching to it. The thing of most outstanding interest in connection with the vestry book of St. Paul's Parish, Hanover County, is that the volume served a unique as well as a double purpose. It was a repository of two very different sets of records; i.e., the minutes of the vestry meetings and, as well, the orders for processioning and the returns made by the processioners."
processioning of land, common in colonial Virginia, was to move in procession around land boundaries to formally determine its limits, sometimes in disputes over property lines and lawsuits over boundary lines and other times for paying tithes.
Neighborhood men within a parish were appointed to perform the processioning which was recorded in the Vestry Book of the parish. A "Precinct" in this sense was a limited area or district for administrative purposes, or the territory in which members of a congregation lived.
Thus, from the records of the processioning of land, more than 300 years ago, I was able to locate a good proximity of where Jeremiah Dumas' land had been. It was from these records, that I was able to determine, not only where Jeremiah Dumas had lived but also who his neighbors were! Thomas Lacy and Thomas prosser, the "attorney and reader1'17, Charles Moorman, (a Quaker and kinsman of the Dumas family), and to my surprise, my Scotsmen ancestors, James and Robert Tate. These were Jeremiah's neighbors within the precinct of the parish in which he lived.
I was elated to find that Polegreen still exists. It is a rural community with farms and homes, much as it was in Jeremiah's time. Jeremiah Dumas was living in Hanover Co., Virginia in 1714, as recorded in the vestry book of St. Paul's parish:
"Ordered that this parish be divided into four precincts, for the Church Wardens to meet the Inhabitants; Viz, the first to begin at the mouth of Mattedicun Creek, and so up the parish Line to Tho:
Thorp's; thence to crofs (cross) by M. Rowland Horsley's, & Rob. Tate's, to Jeremiah Dumas's, and so down to the Mouth of Tottopottomoy's Creek. The Second Precinct from Tho. Thorp's up the line to the extent of the parish and up Chickahomany Swamp to John Andersons, & so downwards to Jeremiah Dumas's, the third, all the Inhabitants between Tottopottomoy's Creek, & Machump's Creek" 18
On 24 March, 1725, Jeremiah was granted 400 acres on the south side of Little River, to the south side of Rock Creek, Hanover Co.19 In 1727, he acquired 325 acres in Goochland Co., and in May of 1729, he and Unity sold this acreage to Thomas Prosser20, who was also of St. Paul's Parish in Hanover, Co.
Jeremiah Dumas had raised his family in that period called "Virginia's Golden Age". Large plantations were growing in size and their owners prospered, but the small farmers felt crowded out and many began to migrate to other colonies.
Jeremiah Dumas died in 1734 in Goochland County, probably in his late fifties. He died intestate, however his son, Benjamin I made an inventory of his estate for the court. My husband, Grady and I visited the Goochland County courthouse and were allowed to search the old record books for this inventory.
Written in the style of old English script, the document, yellowed from age, was difficult to read but we enjoyed trying to "translate" it. The estate inventory begins: "At a Court hold for Goochland County January 26th 1734, Benjamin Dumas presented this Inventory which was admitted to Record".
Some of the 17 items listed are a horse, mare and colt, gold ring, clothes and linens, shoe buckles, books, carpenter tools, lash, 1 quire writing paper, 1 lamp, 1 looking glass, 4 silk handkerchiefs, 2 skins, 1 knife and fork, 1 saddle, 1 beaver hat and 3 pairs of garters! Written below the list is the following:
"In obedience to an Order of Court we the Subscribors first being sworne according to law did then appraise the estate of Jeremiah Dumas, deceased, amounting to £20., 10., 00., on November ye 20th 1734. John Cox, Frederick Cox, Paul Michaux. Three light barrels tobacco which is in the Inspectors hands, quantity unknown to us".
(signed) Benj. Dumas.
(A copy of the estate inventory is on the following page.)
We often think of our ancestors as merely names on a chart with dates of births and deaths. It is more interesting to think of them as persons1 much like ourselves, though living in a different era. The descendants of Jerome (Jeremiah) Dumas now number in the thousands, and are scattered from coast to coast. Family historians will continue to search records for more information about this family. What we actually know of Jeremiah is found only in documentation. We can, however, use our imagination to have a closer feeling of kinship to Jeremiah.
Dumas historians have written that Jeremiah was born in France about 1681, the son of Jeremie Dumas and Susanne Faure. His native language was French. Since he may have lived in London for some time, probably with his brother Jean Dumas, he could also speak English.22 One can only imagine the family discussions concerning young Jeremiah Dumas' leaving on this voyage across the ocean to the Colony of Virginia. Were his parents fearful for Jeremiah's safety, or were they relieved that he would have a chance at life without the oppression they had endured? In Brock's Huguenot Emigration to Virginia, "List of Ye Refugees", line 21 reads "Jean Farry et Jerome DumasflL3. Was Jean Farry a relative, possible a cousin who accompanied him on the voyage?
In London, preparations had long been underway for the three month voyage to America. In Brock's Huguenot Emigration to Virginia, he writes that the expenses of transportation to America was usually borne by the Relief Committee in London. Among the supplies provided the immigrants were farming tools, for the courageous people had been informed about the swamp lands and wild terrain they would encounter. They were also warned about the resentful Indians that still haunted the forests and made occasional raids on settlements.
However, as this little group of Huguenots gathered at the river Thames in London on that spring day in 1700, to board the small ship, their desire to live in a land where they could worship without persecution and live without oppression was greater than their fears. There were other enticements such as free land, no taxes and naturalization upon arrival, which had been promised by King William.
Only about 19 or 20 years old when he left his family and homeland, Jeremiah must have been very brave. We notice in the records that his name was soon changed from Jerome to Jeremiah. This was not unusual, for the English found pronouncing the beautiful French names difficult, and many of the old French names were auglicized to an English version. We can imagine that, since Jeremiah's estate inventory listed books and writing paper, he could read and write. He dressed well because the estate inventory listed a gold ring, silk handkerchiefs, garters, a beaver hat and a looking glass!
Jeremiah's occupation before coming to America is unknown to us, however we learned that, (quoting from Brock):
"refuge in Great Britain was sought by the Huguenots early in the sixteenth century, and in the latter decades of that cycle, emigration thither steadily increasing, had contributed immensely to the constituent population and useful citizenry of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales, comprising all ranks, from peasant to the noble . . artisans, cloth-makers (weavers of serge), lace-makers, silk weavers, glass-makers, printers and manufacturers."
Jeremiah married soon after arriving in Virginia and was given 250 acres of land to farm. He eventually acquired more land in Virginia. Since tobacco was the staple crop, we can assume that he was a planter and his crop was most likely tobacco.
Jeremiah and his wife, Unity had several children, some are perhaps undocumented. It was their son, Benjamin Dumas I, born about 1706, that is the next ancestor in this genealogy's line of descent .
Children of (6G) Jerome (Jeremiah) Dumas Dr. and (6G) Unity ( Lucy) Smith are:
- +(5G) Sarah Dumas, b. Abt. 1709, Pamunkey River, St. Peter Parish, New Kent, Va., d. September 1780, Cedar Creek, St. Martin Parish, Hanover, Va..