Charles Renatus Hicks (b. 23 Dec 1767, d. 20 Jan 1827)
Charles Renatus Hicks (son of Nathan Hicks and Na-ye-hi) was born 23 Dec 1767 in Georgia, and died 20 Jan 1827 in Springplace Mission Georgia.He married Nancy Elizabeth Broom, daughter of Chief Broom and Atsostaha. Notes for Charles Renatus Hicks: HICKS, Charles Renatus First child of Nathan Hicks Born 23 December 1767 on the Hiwassee River in Georgia. Other records suggest he was born on the headwaters of Chickamauga Creek at a place known as Dogwood. He was a member of the Wolf Clan. He married Nancy Elizabeth Broom. He was baptized at the Moravian Mission at Springplace, Georgia on 10 April 1813. He was appointed the official interpreter for the Cherokee Agency in 1801, and was a part of the Cherokee delegation to Washington in 1819. From about 1807-1827, Hicks was a leader in the Vann faction, which was against further cessions or removal. He was located in the Chickamauga District, 12 October 1826. He served as the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1827. Died: 20 danuary 1827 at Springplace Mission in Georgia, and is buried in the Springplace Cemetery. He wag a Cherokee man. from the source below: Lydia Halfbreed Born about 1790. Some records state that Charles Renatus Hicks also married Lydia Halfbreed. She was a member of the Blind Savannah Clan. She was a Cherokee woman. from: EXCERPTS "FROM HEART OF THE EAGLE" by Brent "YANUSDI" Cox Reprinted here under the "Fair Use" doctrrine (c) 1998, Chenanee Publishers, Brent "Yanusdi" Cox - permission of Professor Brent Cox respectfully sought. ______________________________________________________________________________ # CHARLES RENATUS HICKS, Principal Chief in 1827, Assistant Principal Chief 1817/1827, born 23rd December 1767 on the Hiwassee River in Cherokee Nation East, joined the Church of the United Brethren at Spring Place and was baptised on 10th April 1813 receiving the additional name of Renatus, married 1stly, (name unknown), married 2ndly, Nancy E. Broom, baptised in 1821 with the additional names of Anna Felicitas, daughter of Chief Broom and Atsostaha, and had issue. He died 20th January 1827 in Fortville, Cherokee Nation East, buried 22nd January 1827 at Spring Place. * John Hicks (by 1st marriage) * Nathan Wolf Hicks (by 1st marriage), born 1794, died about 1838. * Elsie Hicks (by Nancy) * Charles Renatus Hicks Jr. (by Nancy) * Elijah Hicks (by Nancy), born 21st June 1797, died 6th August 1856 in Claremore, Oklahoma. * Elizabeth Betsy Hicks (by Nancy), born 20th June 1798, died after 1857. * Sarah Elizabeth Hicks (by Nancy), born 11th June 1800, died about 1861. * Jesse Hicks (by Nancy), born 11th May 1802, died after 1842. * Leonard Looney Hicks (by Nancy), born 24th December 1803, educated at Spring Place Mission School 1813, married Dayeni. He died after 1842. * Edward Hicks (by Nancy), born 16th October 1805, educated at Spring Place Mission School 1813, died 1831. The following information is a copyrighted work and was obtained from the excellent work of Brent Cox entitled "Heart of the Eagle - Dragging Canoe and the Emergence of the Chickamauga Confederacy." _______________________________________________________________________________ Charles Hicks, Vice Chief on the Trail of Tears and briefly Principal Chief himself in 1827 following the death of Pathkiller with John Ross as Second Principal Chief, before his own death just a few shorts weeks later brought that to an end. A protoge of the former warrior and Upper Towns chief James Vann, Hicks was one of the most influential leaders in the Nation during the period after the Chickamauga Wars to just past the first quarter of the 19th century. Extremely well-read and acculturated, his personal library was one of the biggest on the continent, public or private. A member of the Cherokee Triumvirate at the beginning of the 19th century, along with James Vann and Major Ridge. Elected Second Principal Chief under Pathkiller in 1811, a political dispute two years later left Hicks as de facto top chief with Pathkiller serving as a mere figurehead. From web page:http://www.aaanativearts.com/cherokee/famous-cherokee.htm ________________________________________________________________________________ The first white member of the Hicks family was Nathan Hicks, who, in the "Old Nation" east of the Mississippi river, married a daughter of Chief BROOM, for whom Broom's Town was named. It was at this old town or settlement that the first written law of the Cherokees was made in 1888 (?). It was somewhere near the American Revolutionary War period that Nathan Hicks became identified with the Cherokees. His oldest son was Charles R. Hicks, the first educated Principal Chief. For thirty years before he assumed the office of Principal Chief, Charles R. Hicks had wielded great influence. He was a penman of ability and about 1826 was elevated to the highest office in the Indian Nation, but his tenure of office was brief for his death occurred within a year. He was succeeded briefly by his brother, William Hicks, and the latter in 1828 was succeeded by John ROSS, who was to hold the position until his death nearly forty years later. From:Indian Pioneer Papers - Index Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma Date: April 9, 1938 Name: Ed Hicks Post Office: Tahlequah, Oklahoma Residence Address: Date of Birth: January 1, 1866 Place of Birth: Fort Gibson, Indian Territory Father: Daniel R. Hicks Place of Birth: Information on father: Mother: Nancy Rider Place of birth: Information on mother: Field Worker: Hattie Turner _________________________________________________________________________ From: http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/states/america/cherokee.html # CHARLES RENATUS HICKS, Principal Chief in 1827, Assistant Principal Chief 1817/1827, born 23rd December 1767 on the Hiwassee River in Cherokee Nation East, joined the Church of the United Brethren at Spring Place and was baptised on 10th April 1813 receiving the additional name of Renatus, married 1stly, (name unknown), married 2ndly, Nancy E. Broom, baptised in 1821 with the additional names of Anna Felicitas, daughter of Chief Broom and Atsostaha, and had issue. He died 20th January 1827 in Fortville, Cherokee Nation East, buried 22nd January 1827 at Spring Place. * John Hicks (by 1st marriage) * Nathan Wolf Hicks (by 1st marriage), born 1794, died about 1838. * Elsie Hicks (by Nancy) * Charles Renatus Hicks Jr. (by Nancy) * Elijah Hicks (by Nancy), born 21st June 1797, died 6th August 1856 in Claremore, Oklahoma. * Elizabeth Betsy Hicks (by Nancy), born 20th June 1798, died after 1857. * Sarah Elizabeth Hicks (by Nancy), born 11th June 1800, died about 1861. * Jesse Hicks (by Nancy), born 11th May 1802, died after 1842. * Leonard Looney Hicks (by Nancy), born 24th December 1803, educated at Spring Place Mission School 1813, married Dayeni. He died after 1842. * Edward Hicks (by Nancy), born 16th October 1805, educated at Spring Place Mission School 1813, died 1831. _______________________________________________________________________________ From webpage: http://www.genealogy.com/ftm/h/i/c/James-R-Hicks-VA/BOOK-0001/0021-0034.html Cherokee Tragedy, The Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People, by Thurman Wilkins, University of Oklahoma Press, Morman and London: On his way home from Salem, Major Ridge stopped at Spring Place on January 22, 1827, and found the mission in mourning. During his absence the Cherokee had lost in quick succession their principal chiefs: the aged Pathkiller had died first and two weeks later Charles Hicks lay in a walnut coffin at Spring Place. Hicks had attended the coulcil at New Echota the previous fall though badly ailing. On his way home he was forced to camp in the woods and had taken cold from the dampness. He had gone to bed with Dropsical complaints and had never risen again. Major Ridge, on taking a last look at his friend, learned that he had died gently on January 20 as though he had mearly fallen asleep. The Ridge delivered an impressive exhortation at the funeral. ********************************************* Cherokee Tragedy, The Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People, by Thurman Wilkins, University of Oklahoma Press, Morman and London: Upon hearing of the death Charles Hicks, one Cherokee said "The Cherokee will sell their land now; those who are left have their price." ********************************************* 1842 Cherokee Claims, Flint District, IT, claim# 33; To: Elijah, Betsey, Sarah, Jesse, Leonard, and Nancy, the heirs and widow of Charles R Hicks decd' Residence in the old Nation, Frkville, Chickamauga Creek (Valuation at Forkville) [list of losses] $8806.50 Nancy Hicks, the widow of Charles R Hicks, deceased, makes oath that the above described premises and improvements were the property of her late husband, that he resided there until his death which was in the year 1827, and after his death she still resided on the premises peaceably and unmolested until the Spring of 1834. [illegible] More About CHARLES RENATUS HICKS, CHIEF: 1842 Claims 1: FL1, pg 223, claim 33 dec'd, by widow Nancy Hicks [nee Broom] & heirs... 1842 Claims 2: FL1, pg 223, claim 33 dec'd, by heirs; Elijah, Leonard, Jesse, Betsey Fields (wife of Archy Fields), Sarah McCoy Blood: 1/2 Cherokee (1/4 per Moravian Biography) Burial: January 22, 1827, Spring Place, GA Chief: January 1827, Principal Chief, CN-East Christened: April 08, 1813, Spring Place, GA Note 1: Bet. 1806 - 1807, "Cherokee Patron" of Gideon Blackburn's School Note 2: Killaneka's daughter is "Related to" Charles Renatus Hicks and his niece Peggy Scott Occupation: Bet. 1817 - 1827, Assistant Principal Chief, under Pathkiller Residence: October 1826, Chickamauga District, GA Signer: February 27, 1819, Treaty of Washington Starr's Notes: C641 ____________________________________________________________________________ From webpage: http://www.utulsa.edu/law/classes/rice/Treaties/07_Stat_228_CHEROKEE.htm TREATY WITH THE CHEROKEE 7 Stat. 228, October 24, 1804, Proclaimed May 17, 1824. Articles of a treaty between the United States of America and the Cherokee Indians. DANIEL SMITH and Return J. Meigs, being commissioned by Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States, with powers of acting in behalf of the said United States, in arranging certain matters with the Cherokee nation of Indians; and the underwritten principal Chiefs, representing the said nation, having met the said Commissioners in a conference at Tellico, and having taken into their consideration certain propositions made to them by the said Commissioners of the United States; the parties aforesaid, have unanimously agreed and stipulated, as is definitely expressed in the following articles: ARTICLE 1. For the considerations hereinafter expressed, the Cherokee nation relinquish and cede to the United States, a tract of land bounding, southerly, on the boundary line between the State of Georgia and the said Cherokee nation, beginning at a point on the said boundary line northeasterly of the most northeast plantation, in the settlement known by the name of Wafford's Settlement, and running at right angles with the said boundary line four miles into the Cherokee land; thence at right angles southwesterly and parallel to the first mentioned boundary line, so far as that a line, to be run at right angles southerly to the said first mentioned boundary line, shall include, in this cession, all the plantations in Wafford's settlement, so called, as aforesaid. ARTICLE 2. For, and in consideration of, the relinquishment and cession, as expressed in the first article, the United States, upon signing the present Treaty, shall cause to be delivered to the Cherokees, useful goods, wares, and merchandise, to the amount of five thousand dollars, or that sum in money, at the option (timely signified) of the Cherokees, and shall, also, cause to be delivered, annually, to them, other useful goods to the amount of one thousand dollars, or money to that amount, at the option of the Cherokees, timely notice thereof being given, in addition to the annuity, heretofore stipulated, and to be delivered at the usual time of their receiving their annuity. In witness of all and everything, herein determined, between the United States and the Cherokee nation, the parties have hereunto set their hands and seals, in the garrison of Tellico, on Cherokee ground, within the United States, this twenty-fourth day of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and four, and in the twenty-ninth year of the independence and sovereignty of the United States. Daniel Smith, Path Killer, his x mark, Return J. Meigs, Tagustiskee, his x mark, Tolluntuskie, his x mark, Tulio, his x mark, Broom, his x mark, Sour Mush, his x mark, J. McLamore, his x mark, Keatehee, his x mark, Quotequeskee, his x mark, James Vann. Witnesses: Rob. Purdy, secretary, Thos. J. Van Dyke, Sur. Mate., John McKee, Wm. Charp, Jno. Campbell, captain, second U. S. Regiment, Com., Hinchey Pertway, Wm. L. Lovely, assistant agent, John Brahan, lieutenant, second Regiment, infantry, Ch. Hicks, interpreter. _____________________________________________________________________________ Below is another article from N. Georgia site Realizing a key to development of the Cherokee Nation was a written language, Sequoyah began work on a graphic representation of the Cherokee language. The syllabary, officially listed as being completed in 1821, took 12 years to create. Sequoyah came up with the idea of "Talking Leaves" when he visited Chief Charles Hicks, who showed him how to write his name so he could sign his work like American silversmiths had begun to do. Initially, Sequoyah tried pictographs, but soon discovered that the number of symbols in the Cherokee language would be in the thousands. Then he began to create symbols for each syllable the Cherokees use. This was the essential step in creating the syllabary. Sequoyah's written language was not the first example of the concept. A Japanese syllabary was developed from 5th century A. D. Chinese ideographic writing. The concept of an alphabet, which denotes sounds instead of syllables, originated in Phoenicia. His work was interupted by the Creek War of 1813-1814, when he joined a Cherokee force under the leadership of The Ridge. After the war, Major Ridge would be called on as leader of the Lighthorse Patrol to punish to Sequoyah for trying to create the syllabary. The leaders of the tribe felt that this written language was the work of the devil, and to force him to stop they ordered Ridge to remove the tops of his fingers. Although he lacked a formal education he spoke several languages fluently. Returning to the Lower Towns, he continued his work while he was caught up in the Creek Path Conspiracy. His syllabary originally contained 115 characters, but he reduced this number to 83 before its first publication. Later, three additional sounds were added bringing the number up to 86.Disenchanted with the movement towards nationalism, Sequoyah left Georgia in 1821 and moved to Arkansas, arriving in 1822. He was living here when the syllabary was introduced to the Cherokee Nation. In a few short years one man had acheived a means of communication that had taken other civilizations thousands of years to accomplish. Use of the language spread quickly through the Chreokee Nation. Anyone who could speak the Cherokee language could learn to read or write in two weeks. Thousands of Cherokee began to use Sequoyah's invention on a daily basis and the syllabary gave the nation the ability to create the first American Indian newspaper, The Cherokee PhoenixThe name "Talking Leaves" was satirical of whites. The Cherokee felt that white man's words dried up and blew away like leaves when the words no longersuited the whites. " Children of Charles Renatus Hicks and Nancy Elizabeth Broom are:
+Elsie Hicks, b. 1799, Chickamauga Dist, Cherokee, Georgia, USA76, 76, d. 10 Jul 1834, Barran Forks, Oklahoma, USA76, 76.