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US - Census Index (1830)



    US - Census Index (1830)
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Record Details
Place: United States
Date: 1830
Type: Census Records
Count: 1,900,000

Related Data Sets
US - Census Index (1790)

US - Census Index (1800)

US - Census Index (1810)

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About the Data
This data set is an index to individuals enumerated in the 1830 United States Federal Census, the Fifth Census of the United States.

Enumerators of the 1830 census were asked to include the following categories in the census: name of head of household; number of free white males and females in age categories: 0 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 15, 15 to 20, 20 to 30, 30 to 40, 40 to 50, 50 to 60, 60 to 70, 70 to 80, 80 to 90, 90 to 100, over 100; the name of a slave owner and the number of slaves owned by that person; the number of male and female slaves and free "colored" persons by age categories; the number of foreigners (not naturalized) in a household; the number of deaf, dumb, and blind persons within a household; and town or district, and county of residence. The categories allowed Congress to determine persons residing in the United States for collection of taxes and the appropriation of seats in the House of Representatives.

Few, if any, records reveal as many details about individuals and families as do the U.S. federal censuses. The population schedules are successive "snapshots" of Americans that depict where and how they were living at particular periods in the past. Because of this, the census is often the best starting point for genealogical research after home sources have been exhausted.

Information contained in this index includes: name of individual; location, county, and state where the individual lived at the time of the census; and year in which the record was created.

Field Example

Name — In some records you will find question marks in the place of the given name or surname. This indicates that the name was not listed on the original record. You may also find question marks in place of missing letters.

A question mark after a name indicates that the name spelling was unclear. You may also occasionally find the same record listed in the index under two different name spellings. Please note that not all unusual and uncertain names were noted by question marks, so always be sure to check under various spellings if you are having trouble locating a name.

Location — The town or city, and/or district where the individual resided at the time of the census.

County — The county in which the individual resided at the time of the census.

State — The state in which the individual resided at the time of the census.

Year — The year of the census.

More About the Data

The United States was the first country to call for a regularly held census. The Constitution required that a census of all "Persons...excluding Indians not taxed" be performed to determine the collection of taxes and the appropriation of seats in the House of Representatives. The first nine censuses from 1790-1870 were organized under the United States Federal Court system. Each district was assigned a U.S. marshal who hired other marshals to administer the census. Governors were responsible for enumeration in territories.

The official enumeration day of the 1830 census was 1 June 1830. All questions asked were supposed to refer to that date. The count was due within six months, but the due date was extended by law to allow completion within twelve months. By 1830, there were a total of twenty-four states in the Union, Missouri being the latest addition. The new territory of Florida also had its first census in 1830. The only census losses for 1830 include some countywide losses in Massachusetts, Maryland, and Mississippi.

Some of the above information is taken from: Chapter 5: Research in Census Records, The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy by Loretto Dennis Szucs; edited by Loretto Dennis Szucs and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking (Salt Lake City, UT: Ancestry Incorporated, 1997).

William Dollarhide, The Census Book: A Genealogist's Guide to Federal Census Facts, Schedules and Indexes, Heritage Quest: Bountiful, UT, 2000.

Source Information

United States. 1830 United States Federal Census. M19, 201 rolls. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C.

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