Origin of the Surname, McNulty, and its Association with the McDonlevys/Dunleavys of County Down[1]

 

 

                                                 

© Paul McNulty PhD, 10 The Oaks, Dublin 14, Ireland, +353-1-2981234h,

paul.mcnulty@ucd.ie;  PaulBMcNulty.com on http://www.myfamily.

 

 

SUMMARY[2]

It is generally accepted that the McNulty surname is derived from the MacDonlevys/Dunleavys who fled early Ulster (primarily County Down) after their defeat by the Anglo-Normans in 1177. Some of the Dunleavys who migrated westward to Donegal became known as Ultach and some of their descendants assumed the name, Mac an Ultaigh, son of the Ulsterman. The first record of the name, McNulty, appeared in the Four Masters in 1281 when Murtough Macan-Ulty was among the distinguished slain at the battle of Desertcreagh in County Tyrone. However, the surname transformation to Mac an Ultaigh/McNulty was not confirmed until 1601 when a pardon was granted by Elizabeth to a yeoman, Morris m’Nich. Ultagh. Further confirmation was apparent through the similarity of their coats of arms although it is more likely that the McNulty arms was a modified replica of the MacDonlevy arms. DNA analysis, on the other hand, revealed a divergence of the McNulty and Dunleavy genes suggesting that the surname, McNulty, could have been derived from other Gaelic families who migrated from early Ulster. Analysis of the so-called 1659 Census and Griffith’s Valuation (1848-1864) revealed that the Dunleavys and the McNultys were well represented in Mayo, Donegal, Sligo, Armagh and Down. The exceptions were the McNulty/Nulty strongholds of Tyrone, Meath, Leitrim and Cavan where the Dunleavys have little presence. An outline of the ancient and early genealogy of the Dunleavys leading to the possible evolution of the McNulty name is presented. Further research into medieval history as well as genetic profiling may provide more information on the origin of the various McNulty septs based on the presumption that they are derived from Gaelic families who migrated from early Ulster.

 

 

                                                                      CONTENTS                                                         Page

Title Page including Summary

1

Contents, Figures, Tables, Appendices

2

Introduction

3

Early Ulster (Ulaid, Ulidia, Ultonia)

3

Origin of Surnames

5

Migration of the Dunleavys from County Down

5

Coats of Arms

7

Linking the Dunleavy and McNulty Genealogies

8

Surname Distribution and Identification of Septs

8

  • 1659 Census

8

  • Griffith’s Valuation 1848-1864

10

  • McAnultys and McAleavys in County Down

11

  • Nultys and Dunleavys

12

Dunleavy Variants: Dunlops, Leavys, Levingstones and McKinlays

12

Genetic Profiling

13

Acknowledgement

14

Primary Sources

14

Secondary Sources

15

Appendices

16

 

FIGURES

1

Twelfth century map of Ireland showing a reduced Ulster (Ulaid), comprised primarily of South Antrim and Down, and ruled by the McDonlevys (Mac Duinnshléibhe).

 

4

2

Location of the McNultys and Dunleavys in Ulster as proposed by Connellan.

6

3

Comparison of the arms of the MacDonlevy, Donlevy and  the Mac an Ultaigh/

McNulty families.

 

7

 

TABLES

1

Activities of the McNultys and the Ultach McDonlevys recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters and in the Annals of Ulster.

 

3

2

The Genealogy of the McDonlevys/Mac Duinn Shléibhe of  East Ulster and its inter-relationship

with the Genealogy of  the McNultys/ Mac an Ultaigh of West Ulster.

 

9

3

Distribution of McNultys, Dunleavys and their Variants in Ireland as Reported by

William Petty in the so-called 1659 Census.

 

10

4

Distribution of McNulty and Dunleavy Households in Ireland based on Griffith’s Valuation 1848-1864.

 

11

5

Genetic Profiles Abstracted from the Irish Heritage DNA Project/IHDP (1632 Members) and from Research at Trinity College Dublin (1123 Volunteers).

 

13

 

APPENDICES

1

Origin of the McNulty surname as proposed by Various Authors.

16

2

Origin of the McDonlevy/Dunleavy surname as proposed by Various Authors.

17

3

Elizabethan Pardons Granted to Selected Persons Indexed under the Surname, Ultagh

18

4

Distribution of  McNulty and McAleavy (variant of Dunleavy) Households in County Down based on Various Internet Records (Accessed 1 February 2006).

 

18

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The first documented record of the name, McNulty, appeared in the Annals of the Four Masters[3] in 1281 (Table 1). Murtough Macan-Ulty[4] was reported as among the distinguished slain at the battle of Desertcreagh in County Tyrone where he fought under the command of Donnell Óg O’Donnell of County Donegal. Macan-Ulty is clearly a derivation of Mac an Ultaigh (son of the Ulsterman), the Gaelic equivalent for McNulty. However, at that time, Ulster was known as Ulaid (Figure 1, p 4) and also by its Latin names, Ulidia and Ultonia.

 

Table 1 Activities of the McNultys and the McDonlevys recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters and in the Annals of Ulster[5] (chronicles of medieval Irish history).

Year

Event

1281

“The battle of Disert-da-chrioch was fought by the Kinel-Connell… assisted by the English of Ulster, on the one side; and Donnell Oge O'Donnell, Lord of Tirconnell, Fermanagh, Oriel, and the greater part of the Irish of Ulster, of Connaught and of Breifny, ….on the other. In this battle the Kinel-Connell were defeated; and Donnell Oge O'Donnell, the most illustrious man of the Irish of his time…, and the greatest commander in the west of Europe, was slain…. The most distinguished of those who fell along with him… (included)… Murtough Macan-Ulty…." (Four Masters)

1395

“Maurice, son of Paul Ultach, Chief Physician of Tirconnell, died i.e. Paul the Ulidian. This is the present usual Irish name of the Mac Donlevys, who were originally chiefs of Ulidia. The branch of the family who became physicians to O'Don­nell are still extant, near Kilmacrenan, in the county of Donegal.” (Four Masters)

1431

“Connell, the son of Naghtan O'Donnell, set out on a predatory excursion into Tirhugh on Mac an-Ultaigh (i.e. the son of the Ultonian. This name is now anglicised Mac Anulty, and sometimes Mac Nulty); but the O'Gallaghers and the sons of Mac an-Ultaigh met and opposed him, and he was slain by one shot of a javelin.” (Four Masters)

1492

Aengus Mac-an-Ultaigh, namely, a Friar Minor of (Stricture) Observance and good, reputable preacher, died in Autumn” (Annals of Ulster)

1582

Dermot Ultach (ie Mac Donlevy), son of John, died.” (Four Masters)

1586

“Owen Ultach (the son of Donough), i.e. the Doctor, died; and this Owen was a doctor in regard of learning, for he excelled the medical doctors of Ireland in the time in which he lived. (Owen Ultach.—His real name was Donlevy, or Mac Donlevy. He was physician to O'Don­nell)” (Four Masters)

 

EARLY ULSTER (ULAID, ULIDIA, ULTONIA)

The Ulaid were a people of early Ireland who gave their name to the province of Ulster. [6] Their territory extended as far south as the River Boyne and as far west as County Leitrim. The reduction  of  Ulster  began  in  the 4th century when Fergus, the king of Ulster, was defeated in battle. The succeeding kings of Ulster resisted further attacks by the Uí Néill but by early Christian times they were reduced to eastern County Down. The descendants of this royal line included the McDonslevys or Dunleavys who were in power and based at Downpatrick until their defeat  by  the Anglo-Normans in 1177 (Figure 1, p 4). Among those families subject to the kings

Figure 1 Twelfth century map of Ireland showing a reduced Ulster (Ulaid), comprised primarily of South Antrim and Down.[7] The control of the McDonlevys (Mac Duinnshléibhe) on the province was lost to the Anglo-Normans in 1177. Some of the McDonlevys who migrated to Donegal assumed the name Mac an Ultaigh (McNulty, son of the Ulsterman).

 

of Ulster (and coincident with the introduction of surnames) were the MacGuinness’s, O'Lynchs, McCartans, O'Laverys, O'Mahans, O'Garvans, Devanys, Doolans and Coulters. The listing did not include the McNultys (Mac an Ultaigh) as that name was applied only to those who had left early Ulster[8].

 

 

ORIGIN OF SURNAMES

Historical perspective on the origin of surnames has been provided by Mitchell[9]: “Ireland was one of the first countries to adopt a system of hereditary surnames which developed from a more ancient system of clan and sept names. From the eleventh century each family began to adopt its own distinctive family name generally derived from the first name of an ancestor who lived in or about the 10th century.” Early surname development has been studied[10] by examining the persistence of first names that carried through eight 50 year periods from 770 to 1169 in Ulster. Donn Sléibhe and Cú Uladh were found to carry through three (1020-1169) and two (1070-1169) periods respectively. Surprisingly, Mac Duinnshléibhe was not reported as an emerging surname even though its derivation from Donn Sléibe is well known (donn brown and sliabh mountain). The Scottish surname, Dunsleve, has also been derived from Donn Sléibhe which has been described as an “old personal name among the Gaels of Scotland and Ireland”.[11] However, the adoption of a first name does not apply to the surname, McNulty (Mac an Ultaigh, son of the Ulsterman), which is based on the location of their ancestors in early Ulster and their subsequent departure from that location (Appendix 1, p 17).

 

MIGRATION OF THE DUNLEAVYS FROM COUNTY DOWN

After migration from early Ulster, the McDonlevys apparently settled in Donegal and eventually became hereditary physicians to the O’Donnells (Appendix 2, p 18). The Four Masters have recorded two distinguished McDonlevy physicians, namely, Paul Ultach in 1395 and Owen Ultach in 1586 (Table 1, p 3). The designation, Ultach, meant the Ulidian or Ulsterman. It is interesting to note that “To the present day, in Irish speaking parts of Donegal, Donlevys are still often called 'Ultach' rather than 'Donlevy'”[12] even though the surname, Ultach, is not listed in Griffith’s Valuation nor in the 07-09 Telephone Directory (which includes Donegal, Mayo and Sligo). Mairead Dunlevy (former keeper at the National Museum) has indicated that, when a child in Donegal, females in her family were known as Dunlevy while males were known as Ultach. Against this background, it is generally agreed that that some of the McDonlevys became known as Mac an Ultaigh. Supporting evidence arises from the apparent transformation of Morris Ultagh to Morris m’Nich. Ultagh c. 1601[13]. This presumably was further transformed to Mac an Ultaigh because the British had confused the female prefix, Nic/Nich., with the male prefix, Mac (Appendix 3, p 19).

 

However, only some McDonlevys assumed the name of McNulty as evident from the close proximity of the McNultys and McDonlevys near Donegal Town in South Donegal (Figure 2, Map A, p 6). O'Donovan claims that the McDonlevys also settled in the barony of Kilmacrenan in North Donegal (Figure 3, Map B, p 6) which is supported by the surname distribution in the 1659 census (Table 3, p 10) and also by the existence of the village of Dunleavy near the foot of Mount Errigal in Kilmacrenan in North Donegal. A Dunleavy castle has also been reported but its location is unknown.[14] Strangely, Dunleavy (apart from the McKinley variant) is not recorded as a family name in the Donegal genealogical database in contrast to McNulty.[15] However, genealogical websites for McKinley or McNulty have not been recorded therein.

 

 

 

Figure 2 Location of the McNultys and Dunleavys in Ulster[16]: Map A “MacNulty” and “O’Donlevy” near Donegal Bay and Donegal Town in South Donegal (also inscribed on the map is “Annals of the Four Masters, written Donegal 1636”; Map B “O’Donlevy” in  Kilmacrenan, North Donegal to the left of Lough Swilly, near Fanad Head; Map C “O’Donlevy” in South Tyrone; near Lough Erne; Map D, “O’Donlevy, P(rince) of Ulidia” near Downpatrick, Co Down.

 

 

There is also a record of an O’Donlevy settlement in South Tyrone (Figure 2, Map C) but it appears that these Dunleavys had moved on by the 19th century or else assumed the McNulty surname. Alternatively, some Dunleavys may have been associated with O’Garvey of Tyrone one of whose ancestors was Ultach (an Ulsterman, 9 generations back from the origin of the O’Garvey surname) although the early O’Garvey pedigree is distinct from that of the Dunleavys[17]. Neither O’Garvey nor Garvey is listed as a surname by Ó Muraíle in The Great Book of Irish Genealogies nor indeed is McNulty or Mac an Ultaigh.

 

                                                                   Donlevy

 

Figure 3  Comparison  of  the  arms  of  the  MacDonlevy,  Donlevy  and   the  Mac  an  Ultaigh/

McNulty[18]   families.   The   MacDonlevy   arms  (left)  has  been described[19] as: “Argent on a

mount   in  base  proper  a  lion  gules  and  a  buck  of  the  second  rampant combatant

supporting  a  dexter  hand  couped at the wrist of the third. Crest:  A lion rampant  gules.”

The  Donlevy   arms  (centre)   has  been  described  as:  "Donlevy,  A. D.  1600.  Ar.   three

cinquefoils  greules,  within  a  double  tressure  flory  counter  flory vert." (argent = silver; gules

=  red;  rampant  =  standing  on  one  foot;  dexter  =  right;  cinquefoil = leaf;  greules  =  gules ?;  

double tressure flory counter flory = ornamented narrow band as in the arms of Scotland).

 

COATS OF ARMS

The arms of the royal MacDonlevys are recorded by MacLysaght (Figure 3) but, strangely, are not registered in Burke’s General Armory[20] nor “at the Office of the Chief Herald, nor …, it would seem at the Heraldic Office in St Germain-en-Laye, after James Terry, one of the Irish officers of arms, followed James II to France and became his herald there.”[21] A very different Donlevy coat of arms has been sourced by Robert Ormsby Sweeny, St Paul, Minnesota (who claims royal descent from Duinnshléibhe) and is presented in the Dunlevy genealogy[22] which is also notable for the association of the Dunleavys with other aristocratic families (eg Brady, Clery, O’Neill, MacMahon, O’Gara and O’Donnell) but not with the McNultys. Given that the Dunlevy biography has been cited by MacLysaght, it is likely that the MacDonlevy (left) rather than the Donlevy (center) arms is the correct one particularly since black and white facsimiles of the MacDonlevy arms have been located[23]. O’Ferrall includes a motto for Donlevy Mens sana in corpore sano which may be focused on the healing and curing of mind and body in line with their reputation as expert physicians. Furthermore, the similarity between the McNulty and MacDonlevy arms may be due to a replication of the main features of one onto the other with particular emphasis on the shield (Figure 3). Both feature the Red Hand of Ulster which was popular among families of Uí Néill descent and may have been used as a mark of royalty.[24] For the same reason, the use of the motto “Merito” (meaning deservedly) on a McNulty coat of arms (Heraldic Artists, Dublin 2, c 1970) may have been borrowed from that on the crest of the Dunlops, a variant Dunleavy name (Appendix 2, p 18).

 

 LINKING the DUNLEAVY  and McNULTY GENEALOGIES

The genealogy of those McNultys who descended from the Dunleavys of Donegal may be traced  to the kings of Ulster because the genealogy of the Dunleavys in County Down has been established. Parts I and II (Table 2, p 9) outline the ancient and early origins of the Dunleavys respectively. Part III is a speculative outline of a possible association between the McNultys and Dunleavys which, apparently, led to the assumption of the name Mac an Ultaigh by some of the Dunleavys. The probable transition of some of the Ultagh Dunleavys to Mac an Ultaigh is illustrated by an Elizabethan pardon granted to the yeoman, Morris m’Nich. Ultagh, in 1601 (Appendix 3, p 18). Part IV is a speculative outline of the descent of the modern McNultys from the medieval McNultys of Donegal.

 

The extensive genealogy of the Dunleavys is illustrated by the sketch pedigree of Charles and Isabella (nee White) Dunlevie[25] and by the male descendant line of Anthony Dunlevy, who settled in Sligo in 1622, as adapted from G D Kelley[26] (f = father):

 

Anthony Dunlevy I[27] (Sligo) f. Francis f. John f. James f. Andrew f. Anthony II (Pennsylvania, 1763-1804) f. Andrew (1795-1879) f. Jehu (1833-) f. James Harvey (b. 1857, m. 1891) f. Risher Alexander (b. 1892)

 

It would be interesting to link Anthony Dunlevy I to those Ultach Dunleavys recorded by the Four Masters (1395-1586) or by Elizabethan pardons (1558-1662). A survey of the migration of some of the Dunleavys from Donegal to Sligo occasioned by the Plantation of Ulster might yield results. In contrast, it is difficult to trace the McNultys in the period between the Annals (12th – 17th century) and the 19th century either in Ireland or overseas although both Elizabeth McNulty[28] and Charlotte Olsheske[29] have traced their North American ancestors to early 19th century Ireland.

 

SURNAME DISTRIBUTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SEPTS

MacLysacht has defined a sept as "a group of persons who, or whose immediate and known ancestors, bore a common surname and inhabited the same locality".[30] The emphasis on locality can be explored by examining census records and substitutes particularly those that have been digitised thus permitting rapid interrogation of the databases. Primary focus will be on the so-called 1689 census and Griffith's Valuation 1848-1864.

 

1659 Census

The Irish rebellion of 1641 was followed by Cromwell’s invasion and re-occupation of Ireland in 1649. The Protestant army of the British was subsequently paid in-kind through the allocation of

 

Table 2 The Genealogy of the McDonlevys/Mac Duinn Shléibhe of  East Ulster (adapted from Ó Muraíle[31]) and its inter-relationship with the Genealogy of the McNultys/ Dunleavys  of West Ulster (f =father).

 

2.5 million acres (10,000 km²) of land leading to the banishment of many of the rebels to Connaught. The redistribution of land required an accurate survey which was undertaken by William Petty in 1656.[32] Petty also completed the so-called Census of Ireland in 1659 which listed principal families as well as those with title to land (“Tituladoes”) in all counties except Cavan, Galway, Mayo, Meath (incomplete) and Tyrone.  A principal family was designated as one that had more than 3-8 tax-paying households in a particular barony. There was a range of 5-22 baronies in the various counties of Ireland.

 

Names listed in the 1659 Census include McAnulty, Nulty and Ultagh (the assumed name of the Dunleavys in Donegal, including “Wltagh”) and the Dunleavy variants, Dunlape, Leavy and McKinlay  (Table 3, p 10).  Gabriel Ultagh (Dunleavy) is reported as a “Titulado” over 67 people in 8 townlands of the barony of Kilmacrenan including 6 “Wltagh” (Dunleavy) families. McAnulty is reported as one of the principal families in the baronies of Tirhugh (South Donegal) and Boylagh and Banagh (South-west Donegal) where, strangely, the Dunleavys are not recorded. None of these families was particularly numerous when compared with the Gallaghers and the Stuarts. Furthermore, the Dunleavys are not reported as a principal family elsewhere in Ireland.

 

Table 3 Distribution of McNultys and Dunleavys and their Variants in Ireland as Recorded by William Petty in the so-called  1659 Census[33] (Edited by Seamus Pender[34]).

County

Barony/Other Location

Population : English (E), Scottish, Irish

“Titulado”

Principal Families or Variant

McNulty

Dunleavy

Most

Numerous

Antrim

Ramoan parish

 

Brice Dunlape

Not recorded

Not recorded

Not recorded

Antrim

Dunluce Carey & Kilconway

1138 E, 2940 I

-

<6

13 McKinlay

60 Stuart and McStuart

Donegal

Tirhugh

244 ES, 1474 I

-

9 McAnulty

<6

26 Gallagher

Donegal

Boylagh & Banagh

285 ES, 1556 I

-

8 McAnulty

<4

51 Gallagher

Donegal

Raphoe

1825 ES 1330 I

-

<3

6 McKinlay

27 Cunyngham

Donegal

Kilmacrenan

 

Gabriel Ultagh

<3

6 “Wltagh”

52 Gallagher

Down[35]

All baronies

15183

-

<6 to <9

<6 to <9

 

Dublin

Fishamble St

 

Mathew Nulty

Not recorded

Not recorded

Not recorded

Longford

Ardagh

19 E, 971 I

-

<5

7 Leavy

29Farrell/Reilly

 

A digitised version[36] of the 1659 Census has facilitated the production of colour coded maps showing the distribution and population density of the most common names throughout Ireland. Unfortunately, neither the McNultys nor the Dunleavys were sufficiently numerous to justify the elaboration of distribution maps. Smyth also produced surname distribution profiles for 125 surnames based on Griffith’s Valuation 1846-1864 but neither the McNulty nor the Dunleavy surnames were included.

 

Griffith’s Valuation 1848-1864

An interrogation of a digitised Griffith’s Valuation 1848-1864 (Table 4, p 11) revealed that the McNulty and Dunleavy households were concentrated in Donegal, Mayo and Sligo which supports the westward migration theory following the defeat of the Dunleavys by the Anglo-Normans in 1177. The McAnultys and the McAleaveys have a substantial presence in Armagh and Down. The McAnultys also have a substantial presence in Tyrone where the Dunleavys and McAleavys have a minimal presence. Furthermore, the Nultys are heavily concentrated in Meath and Cavan where the Dunleavys and McAleavys are almost entirely absent. It may be that the McAnultys of Armagh, Down and Tyrone are a separate sept from those McNultys who are descendants of the Dunleavys in Donegal. My great great grandfather, Robert McAnulty, Knockbrack, Co Derry may have been a descendant of this sept but could also have been a descendant of the McNultys of Donegal. Bell[37] has suggested that there was “a small sept of  MacAnultys in Co. Cavan” suggesting a spillover into Cavan as well as Derry (although their numbers were much smaller than the Nultys in Cavan in the mid-19th century).

Table 4 Distribution of McNulty and Dunleavy Households in Ireland based on Griffith’s Valuation 1848-1864 as reported on http://www.ireland.com/ancestor/surname/

(The Dunleavy variants, Dunlop, Leavy, Levingston and McKinley have been excluded).

Region

McNulty

McAnulty

Nulty+

Variants

Totals

Dunleavy, Dunlevy+V

McAleavy+Variants

Totals

Ireland

542

139

171

852

233

109

342

Armagh

5

39

-

44

2

53

55

Cavan

3

2

34

39

4

-

4

Donegal

127

3

-

130

39

-

39

Down

6

40

-

46

-

38

38

Leitrim

48

-

1

49

5

-

5

Louth

5

1

16

22

-

8

8

Mayo

182

-

10

192

80

-

80

Meath

1

1

70

72

-

-

-

Sligo

52

1

2

55

32

-

32

Tyrone

40

44

1

85

3

4

7

Other regions

73 (13%)

8 (5.8%)

37 (22%)

118 (14%)

68 (29%)

6 (5.5%)

74 (22%)

 

 

McAnultys and McAleavys in County Down

The presence of McAnultys in Down is puzzling because the McNulty name was applied only to those Gaelic families who fled Down after 1177 (Table 4, Appendix 4, p 18). While there are records of migration of Gaelic families from Ulster south-westwards into Connaught[38] in the 17th and 18th centuries[39], I have seen no reference to eastern migration. Also puzzling is the adoption of the variant name, McAleavy by the residual Dunleavys in Down some of whom may have been tenants of Don Levi[40] (Dunleavy), the hereditary prince of Ulidia who left Ireland for Paris in 1691 following the fall of King James II. His son and heir, Andrew-Maurice Don-Levi continued to receive the rents from his father’s landed property in the counties of Down and Antrim. The male descendant pedigree eventually petered out (as adapted from O’Hart, f = father):

 

Don Levi f. Andrew-Maurice (b. Ireland, d 1751 Koblenz, Germany) f. Christien-Francois (b. 1734 Koblenz) f. John (b. 1770 Leibnitz, Austria d. Berdyczow, Russian Poland) f. Ettienne Stanislaus (b 1812 Berdyczow, living in Paris 1883) no children.

 

The continuing fascination of the Dunleavys with their royal heritage is underscored by Florence Dunlevy (b. 1849) whose father, John Donlevy (b. 1821, County Cavan) was requested by Prince Paul Don Levy of Poland to join forces with him regarding their property in Down and Antrim.[41]

 

The variant surname McAleavey is also popular in neighbouring Armagh and almost nowhere else. Thus, it seems reasonable to suggest that the McAleaveys of Down and Armagh are a sept of the Dunleavys originally from Down. It is also possible that the McAleavys of Down and Armagh may have facilitated the eastern migration of McAnultys from Armagh and possibly Tyrone to Down.

 

Nultys and Dunleavys

The Nultys[42] are concentrated in north Leinster and south Ulster in Cavan, Louth and especially Meath where the Dunleavys have a minimal presence (Table 4, p 11). MacLysaght presumed that the Nultys were an offshoot of the Donegal McNultys. Another possibility is that migrants from early Ulster (Ulidia) moved south westward rather than westward and assumed the name Ultach which was later anglicised to Nulty. They may have been Dunleavys who completely converted to the Nulty surname or another Gaelic family previously associated with the royal Dunleavys in Down. It thus seems reasonable to suggest that the Nultys of Cavan, Louth and Meath are a sept of the McNultys who originated from migrant Gaelic families from early Ulster.

 

DUNLEAVY VARIANTS: DUNLOPS, LEAVYS, LEVINGSTONES AND McKINLAYS

Of the Dunleavy variants cited by various authors (Appendix 2, p 18), McKinlay is the most likely to have had an association with the McNultys. In the first instance, it is the only variant surname that has a significant present in Donegal[43]. Secondly, McKinley may stand for Mac an Leagha (son of the physician) as indicated in the following profile[44]:

 

McKinley.... Ir. Mac Fhionnlaoich (fair warrior). Usually a Scottish name: President MacKinley of USA (1897-1901) was of Antrim stock. This name may stand for Mac an Leagha (son of the physician) in some cases.”

 

Thus, there may have been an association between the McKinley physicians and those of the Dunleavys (Table 1, p 3) some of whose descendants assumed the name Mac an Ultaigh/McNulty.

 

I am not aware of any association between the McNultys and that branch of the Dunleavys which migrated to Scotland after 1177 where their descendants became known as Dunlop and Dunlief (Appendix 2, p 18). However, Black[45] claims that Dunlop is derived from the lands of Dunlop in Ayrshire near the south-west coast of Scotland (about 25 kilometers south-west of Glasgow). The name was first recorded when dominus Willelmus de Dunlop was a witness to an indenture in 1260. It has also been claimed that the Dal Riada Celts from County Antrim occupied the area of Dunlop and gave it its name[46] which may have been derived from the Scots Gaelic dún lapach, or muddy hill[47]. Supporting evidence is provided by MacLysaght[48] who indicated that the Gaels of Scotland are descendants of Gaelic settlers from Ireland. In fact, Scotland got its name from the Irish settlers bearing in mind that Scotus is the Latin for Irishman. The Dunlops became Presbyterian and are now numerous in Antrim and to a lesser extent in Down following the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century. Could it be that these Dunlops are descendants of that branch of the Dunleavys that migrated to Scotland after 1177? If so, how ironic it is that the Dunlops of Ayrshire proudly defended themselves against incursions from the Gaels of Ireland when they may have been descendants of Irish Gaels themselves.

 

I am not aware of any connection between the McNultys and the Leavys or Levingstones/ Livingstones as neither have a significant presence in Donegal which is considered to be the source of the McNulty surname. However, a connection between the Dunleavys and the Livingstones has been established by Black: “William Livingston, the Islay bard, always wrote his name in Gaelic M'Dhunleibhe, and Dr. David Livingstone, the African traveller, was a Macdonleavy of Ulva.”[49]

 

GENETIC PROFILING

Genetic profiling (using DNA analysis) may establish if the McNultys, McAnultys and Nultys are separate septs and also their possible descent from the Dunleavys or other Gaelic families of early Ulster. It might also establish if the Dunlops, Levingstons, Leavys and McKinleys of modern Ireland are indeed descendants of the royal Dunleavys.

 

Table 5 Genetic Profiles Abstracted from the Irish Heritage DNA Project/IHDP (1632 Members) and from Research at Trinity College Dublin (1123 Volunteers)

 (Most profiles are in the R1b1 haplogroup, the most common genetic profile in NW Europe.

Red markers are fast mutators for recent matches, black markers are for ancient ancestry)

Name/Location

Haplogroup

393

390

19

391

385a

385b

426

388

439

3891

392

3892

437

438

436

1 McNulty/Connaught

R1b1

13

25

14

10

12

15

12

12

12

14

13

31

-

-

-

9 Dunleavys/

throughout ireland

 

R1b1

 

13

 

24

25

26

14

15

 

10

11

 

11

 

13

14

15

-

 

12

 

11

12

 

13

14

 

13

14

 

29

30

 

 

15

 

12

13

 

 

12

3 Dunleavys/

Connaught

I1b2

13

24

15

11

12

15

16

 

13

11

13

11

29

 

14

 

10

 

12

 Irish Haplogp/17 markers

R1b3

13

25

14

11

 

 

 

12

 

13

14

29

15

12

12

Uí Néill-Ulster

 

13

24

25

14

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

14

13

14

29

30

31

 

?

 

?

 

?

Niall Nóigiallach d c 400

R1b1c7

13

25

14

11

11

13

12

12

12

13

14

29

15

12

12

Wilson of Kilwinnet

R1b1

13

25

14

10

15

15

12

12

11

14

13

30

15

12

-

 

Genetic profiling involves testing for the male Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) that is passed only from father to son or for the female X-chromosome (mitochondrial DNA) which is inherited by all children but only from their mother[50]. To date, most genetic profiling has involved testing for the male Y-chromosome. Descent from a common male ancestor is indicated if the Y-DNA markers of two or more male individuals match. The Irish Heritage DNA Project (IHDP) and researchers at Trinity College Dublin have assembled the DNA profiles of Irish people including one 12 marker McNulty profile and 12 Dunleavy profiles[51] (Table 5). While the McNulty profile reveals some rare features (eg value of 31 for DNA marker 389-2), it is also quite typical of an Uí Néill-Ulster profile.[52] The 12 Dunleavy profiles are split into two groupings, one in Connaught and the other spread over Ireland. None of them provide a good match with the McNulty profile indicating that this particular profile was not derived from any of the 12 featured Dunleavys.

 

IHDP DNA profiles are also available for some of the families who were subject to the royal Dunleavys in the 12th century, namely, the Devanys (2), Downeys (1), O'Hanveys (1), O'Lynchs (1) and the O'Mahans (17). Some of these families may have migrated with the Dunleavys to Donegal after 1177. In all cases, at least 3 of the DNA markers differed from the 12 marker McNulty profile indicating that this particular profile could not have been derived from any of the aforementioned profiled families. However, additional McNulty (in particular) and Dunleavy profiles would be required before any conclusion as to origin can be elaborated.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author wishes to gratefully acknowledge Sean Murphy MA for expert guidance in genealogical methodology; Fergus Gillespie, Chief Herald, Genealogical Office, Dublin for advice on family arms; Mairead Dunlevy, former keeper at the National Museum, for advice on the usage of Ultach as a surname in her family in Donegal; and Austin Rock, Irish Heritage DNA Project, Dublin http://homepage.eircom.net/~ihdp/ihdp/index.htm for advice on DNA profiles.

 

PRIMARY SOURCES

 

Reference

Connellan, Owen (Editor) Annals of Ireland (1171 to 1616), Dublin, 1846

Freeman, A Martin (Editor) Annals of Connacht 1224-1544 Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies, 1996.

Mac Carthy, B (Editor) Annals of Ulster, Volumes 2 and 3, Hodges and Figgis, Dublin, 1893.

O’Donovan, John (ed. & trans.) Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616 (compiled 1632-1636 by Michéal Ó Cléirigh et al) 7 volumes, Dublin 1851, also available as a searchable text excluding footnotes http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T100005A/   1 Mar 2007

Ó Muraíle, Nollaig (Editor) The Great Book of Irish Genealogies (compiled 1645-1666 by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh) 5 Volumes, de Búrca, Dublin, 2003.

O'Rahilly, Cecile (ed & trans), Táin Bó Cúalnge from the Book of Leinster, DIAS, Dublin, 1967, also available as a searchable text , Text 1 http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T301035/index.html 10 Mar 20007

Petty, William Political Anatomy of Ireland posthum. (1672, pub. 1691) Dublin 1860 (reprint) 142pp.

The Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns Vol 3 1586-1603 Elizabeth, Vol 4 Index, de Búrca, Dublin

 

National Library of Ireland/Genealogical Office, Dublin

O’Donlevy, O’Ferrall’s Linea Antiqua, Volume 2, Genealogical Office, Dublin, MS 146, page 446

Dunlevy, Betham Sketch Pedigree Series, Manuscript 11, Genealogical Office, Dublin, pages 345-348

Heraldic Sketches (Dunlevy/Lloyd), Manuscript 125, Genealogical Office, Dublin, page 236.

Kelley, G D (Gwendolyn Dunlevy) (also known as Hack, G K) A Genealogical History of the Dunlevy Family Columbus, Ohio, 1901, 370 pages; also on http://www.ancestry.com 5 March 2007)

Olsheske, Charlotte The McNulty Family Tree, National Library of Ireland, G9292 m 35, c 1998, 226 pp.

O’Sullivan, William (Editor) The Strafford Inquisition of County Mayo IMC 1958, 246 pp

Pender, Seamus (Editor) A Census of Ireland circa 1659, Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin 1939.

Simington, Robert C The Transplantation to Connacht 1654-58 IMC 1970

 

Internet

Eircom (Telephone Directory) http://159.134.203.172/search.asp?source=Eircom (Accessed 20 Mar 2007)

“Flax Grants 1796”, “Tithe Applotment 1827-1834”, “Griffiths Valuation 1863/4” and “1901 Census Records for County Down” http://www.caora.net/find.php  Accessed 1 February 2006

“Freeholders’ Records” http://www.proni.gov.uk/freeholders/search.asp Accessed 1 February 2007

Griffith’s Valuation 1848-1864 http://www.ireland.com/ancestor/surname/ Acc Feb 2007

Livingston/MacLea/Boggs Surname DNA Project”

http://www.familytreedna.com/public/livingston%5Fmaclea%5Fdna/ Accessed 28 February 2007

McEvoy, Brian and Daniel G Bradley “Y-Chromosomes and the extent of patrilineal ancestry in Irish surnames” Human Genetics 119, 2006, pages 212-219. Data on http://www.gen.tcd.ie/molpopgen/data.htm

McNulty DNA profile http://homepage.eircom.net/~ihdp/ihdp/r1b1c.htm e-mail austinrock@eircom.net “R1b1 - Members Results” http://homepage.eircom.net/~ihdp/ihdp/r1b1c.htm Accessed 1 February 2007.

 

 

 

 

 

SECONDARY SOURCES

 

Reference

Bell, Robert 1988 The Book of Ulster Surnames  Blackstaff,  Belfast

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland. New York Public Library, 1974.

Burke's General Armory  Genealogical Pub. Co, Baltimore, 1969, 1185 pages.

De Bhulbh, Seán  Sloinnte uile Éireann-All Ireland Surnames Limerick 2002

McAnlis, Virginia W The Consolidated Index to the Records of the Genealogical Office Dublin Ireland, Issaquah, Wisconsin, 1995, 4 Volumes, National Library of Ireland, 9291 c 11

MacLysaght, Edward Irish Families - Their Names, Arms and Origins, 4th Edition, Dublin, 1985

MacLysaght, Edward The Surnames of Ireland, 5th Edition, Irish Academic Press, Dublin, 1980

Mitchell, Brian The Top 140 Surnames in Derry Foyle Community Directory, Derry, 1989.

Mitchell, Brian The Surnames of Derry Genealogy Center, Derry 1992

O’Hart, John Irish Pedigrees Second Series M H Gill, Dublin 1878

O’Hart, John The Irish and Anglo-Irish Landed Gentry Irish University Press, Shannon, 1969.

Quinn, Seán Surnames in Ireland  Irish Genealogy Press, Dublin 2000.

 

General

Byrne, Francis John, Irish Kings and High-Kings. Batsford, London, 1973.

Crotty, Gerard “Heraldy in Ireland, Part Eight” Irish Roots, 4, 1998, page 22.

Gillespie, Fergus, Chief Herald, Genealogical Office, Dublin, Personal communications, February 2007

Grenham, John Tracing your Irish Ancestors, 3rd Edition, 2006, page 297 (1796 Catholics Emigrating from Ulster to Mayo, Seanchas Ardmhaca 1958, pages 17-50; also “Petition of Armagh migrants in the Westport area” Cathair na Mart, Volume 2, Number 1, Appendix)

McNulty, Elizabeth A  McNulty Family History, USA Library of Congress, 1987, 134 pages

 

Internet

“Ancestral lineage of Paul McNulty as gleaned from early to mid-19th century records” GX 105- Essay, Paul McNulty,  UCD, 2006 <www.genealogy.com/users/m/c/n/Paul-Mcnulty-mac-an-ultaigh/index.html

Deese, Pat “Ulster Migrants 1796 to County Mayo

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~deesegenes/emg.html Accessed 23 Jan 2007

Donegal Family Names” http://www.dun-na-ngall.com/general.html Accessed 14 March 2007

“Family Tree DNA Tutorial” http://www.familytreedna.com/tutorial_A.html Accessed 28 February 2007

“History of the Dunlop/Dunlap Name” and “Migrations” http://www.clandunlop.org/ Accessed 7 Feb 2007

Irish Rebellion of 1641http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Rebellion_of_1641 Accessed 20 Feb 2007

Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aidhttp://archives.nd.edu/latgramm.htm Accessed 23 March 2007  

McNulty (Coat of Arms).gif Posted on 2003/07/04” Accessed 16 February 2007 http://groups.msn.com/CelticOrigins/irishcoas.msnw?action=ShowPhoto&PhotoID=431

McNulty, Tim “McNulty family crest on the web” Message 382, page 2, 2 January 2001 http://genforum.genealogy.com/mcnulty/listings.html Accessed 10 January 2007

Nulty Home Page” (and Family Reunion, Co Meath, 2000) http://users.nac.net/pkd/  Accd 20 March 2007

Oxford English Dictionary http://www.oed.com/ Accessed 5 March 2007

Smyth, Wm J Atlas of Family Names in Ireland www.ucc.ie:8080/cocoon/doi/atlas?section=N1086C 3/07.

Walsh Dennis “Ireland’s History in Maps” www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/ihm/ire1200.htm Accd 31 Jan 2007 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 1  Origin of the McNulty Surname as Proposed by Various Authors.

 

Mac an Ultaigh: Mac Nulty: lionmhar: iarthar Uladh. Bhí baint acu le Ó Duinnshleibhe. SGG.”[53]

 

Mac Nulty: numerous: Donegal-Derry-Tyrone, Ulster generally, Sligo-Mayo-Galway. Ir. Mac an Ultaigh, son of the Ulsterman. A sept of Donegal. IF.”[54]

 

MacNulty, Mac an Ultaigh, MacDuinnshleibhe, Dunleavy

A Gaelic surname meaning 'son of the Ulidian' (East Ulster). The MacDuinnshleibhe sept of Donegal were also known as Mac an Ultaigh. In Meath the surname was Nulty. In 1890 McNulty was principally found in Donegal and Mayo, and the estimated number of bearers was 3,090. In the United States McNulty is the 2,847th most numerous surname with an estimated 11,000 bearers.”[55]

 

MacNulty

The derivation of many Irish surnames is open to doubt, but there is none about that of MacNulty : in Irish it is Mac an Ultaigh, i.e. son of the Ulsterman. An older anglicized form of the name, now rare, is MacAnulty. The MacNultys belong to-day, as they have done since the inception of surnames, to north-west Ulster—to Donegal, which claims to be the most Irish part of Ireland. As might be expected from the location of this sept they were overshadowed by the O'Donnells, sometimes in association with them, as in the battle of Desertcreagh in 1281 (a MacNulty was among the " distinguished slain " there), sometimes against them as on the occasion in 1431 when the O'Donnells are recorded by the Four Masters as making a predatory expedition against the MacNultys of Tirhugh (Co. Donegal). From Derry, on the border of Co. Donegal, came Frank Joseph MacNulty (1872-1926), American labour leader, whose father Owen MacNulty was a veteran of the Civil War.

The name is also found in Co. Meath but always it is shorn of its prefix Mac there. I presume these Nultys are an offshoot of the Donegal MacNultys. Bernard MacNulty (d. 1892), friend of John Boyle O'Reilly, was the founder of the first branch of the Fenian Brotherhood in the U.S.A.[56]

 

Mac Nulty Mac an Ultaigh (Ultach, Ulsterman). In Meath it is usually without the Mac, but in Louth, where it is numerous, the Mac is generally retained. IF 244; Map Donegal.”[57]

 

MacNulty

This name is not common outside Connacht and Ulster, where it is found mainly in counties Mayo and Donegal respectively. It is originally in Gaelic Mac an Ultaigh, 'son of the Ulsterman', and is also found in the forms MacAnulty and Nulty.

The MacNultys were a sept of south Donegal associated with the O'Donnells and were recorded at different times as followers or as foes of that family. There was also a small sept of MacAnultys in Co. Cavan. The situation as regards Donegal is complicated by the MacDunlevys, a royal family of Ulidia, modern southeast Ulster, who were driven out by John de Courcy in the twelfth century and settled in Donegal. One of the names they assumed there was Mac an Ultaigh, 'son of the Ulidian' (see Dunleavy).

Derryman Frank Joseph MacNulty, 1872—1926, became a famous labour leader in the USA.”[58]

 

McNulty (13[59]) Irish. Meaning son of the Ulsterman this sept originated in South Donegal. One of the names assumed by the Dunleavys (See Dunleavy) when they settled in Donegal was McNulty.”[60]

 

Appendix 2 Origin of the McDonlevy/Dunleavy surname as proposed by Various Authors.

MacDonlevy, Dunleavy, Leavy.

      Dunleavy, to give the name its most usual modern form, may be regarded as a Mac surname—Mac Duinnshléibhe in Irish—though in some early manuscripts, e.g., the "Topographical Poems" of O'Dugan and O'Heerin, the prefix O is used. In the "Annals of Loch Cé" the O prefix appears in the sixteenth century, but all those mentioned before that are Mac. In modern times it has many synonyms: besides spelling variants such as Donlevy, there is McAleevy (due to the aspiration of the D), Leevy (by abbreviation) and MacNulty, or in Irish, Mac an Ultaigh, i.e., son of the Ulidian (Ultach). Under date 1395 the Four Masters call the then Chief Physician of Tir Conaill Paul Ultach; and again for 1586 they record the death of Owen Ultach (i.e. MacDonlevy) who excelled as a medical doctor. The MacDonlevys were originally a royal family of Ulidia (Down and South Antrim) but never recovered from their disastrous defeat by John de Courcy in 1177, though their chief was still officially styled Rex Hibernicorum Ultoniae in 1273. After that they migrated to Tirconnell (Donegal) where they became hereditary physicians to the O'Donnells; and one branch went to Scotland where their descendants are now known as Dunlop and Dunlief. Cormac McDonlevy, one of these hereditary physicians, was a man of note in the fifteenth century on account of his translations of Gaulterus and other medical works into Irish. In the eighteenth century Rev. Andrew Donlevy, D.D., LL.D. (1694-c.1761), who was Superior of the Irish College in Paris from 1728 to 1746, compiled a catechism in Irish and English and also collaborated with Walter Harris, the historian, who is best known for his work on the Ware manuscripts. Dr. Donlevy was born in Co. Sligo, in which county, not far from Tirconnell, the name Dunleavy is principally found at the present time. Father Christopher Dunlevy, O.F.M. was martyred in 1644. Arms illustrated on Plate VIII.”[61]

 

Dunleavy (1) Irish. An ancient Irish family who were driven from County Down by the Normans in the 12th century and settled in Donegal. Scots Gaelic. It can be a variant of McKinley. See McKinley.”[62]

 

“(Mac) Dunlevy Mac Duinnshléibhe* (sliabh, mountain). A royal family of Ulidia till the twelfth century. Thence they migrated to Tirconnell under the O'Donnells and followed those who went to north Connacht in 1602. A branch went to Scotland, where they became Dunlop and Dunlief. The prefix O is sometimes used instead of the more correct Mac. Bibl; IF 118; Map Donegal and Down. *The majority of names beginning with ….Donn and Duinn in Irish are derived from the adjective donn, brown; the second part of such names is usually speculative being often obsolete forenames.”[63]

 

“The  Stem of the " Dunlevy" Family.

Tuirmeach-Teamrach, the 81st monarch of Ireland, and who (see the first series) is No. 66 on the " Stem of the House of Heremon", had a son named Fiach fearmara, who was ancestor of the kings of Argyle and Dalriada ; in Scotland: this Fiach (latinized " Fiachus fearmara") was also the ancestor of MacDunshleibhe and 0'Dunshleibhe, anglicised Dunlevy, Donlevy, Levingstone, and Livingstone.”[64]

 

Dunleavy (also MacAleavey)

Dunleavy is not a very common name in Ulster. MacAleavey is more common and is exclusive to the province. It is most numerous in counties Down and Armagh.

The Irish Dunleavy is more properly MacDunlevy, being in Gaelic Mac Duinnshléibhe, from donn, 'brown', and sliabh, 'mountain'. The MacDunlevys were a royal family of Ulidia (southeast Ulster), who were driven out by John de Courcy in the twelfth century and migrated to Co. Donegal where they became physicians to the O'Donnells. The sept migrated to Connacht after the Battle of Kinsale in 1602, and Mayo and Sligo are the counties where the name Dunleavy is now most common. The name was also made Donleavy, Leavy, Leevy, MacAleavey, Mac-Aleevy and MacNulty. This last is in Gaelic Mac an Ultaigh, 'son of the Ulidian' (see MacNulty).

MacLysaght claims that a branch of the MacDunlevys went to Scotland where the name was made Dunlop  and Dunlief. However, Black gives these names quite different origins (see Dunlop). Dunleavey is also a Scottish name but is a variant of MacKinley (see Finlay).

Brian Donlevy, 1899—1971, was born in Portadown, Co. Armagh. He fought with General John Pershing in Mexico in 1919, then worked in the United States as a model before becoming a leading man in Hollywood.”[65]

 

Ultach, Ultacháin: Ulsterman: leas-ainm a bhí ag Mac Dhuinnshléibhe, q.v.”[66]

 

Ultagh (Ultach, Ulsterman). An agnomen of some branches of Mac-Donlevy who left Ulster. It has been changed to North in Westmeath.”[67]

 

 

Appendix 3 Elizabethan Pardons Granted to Selected Persons Indexed under the Surname, Ultagh[68]

Year/Fiant

Name

Location

Occupation

Context

1558/5227

Morish, Shane and  Donell Ultagh

Offane

 

Surgeons

Followers of Brian O’Rwirke

1590/5532

Shane Ultagh M’Owen

Morish Ultagh M’Cormack

Laghcarowarde,

Co Clare?

-

-

Connaught and Thomond

1591/5597

Owin Ultagh

Dermot Ultagh

Grangbegg, Co Sligo

Ardneglasse, Co Sligo

-

-

Connaught

1601/6494

Morris m’Nich[69]. Ultagh

Gleandoine

Yeoman

-

1601/6557

Patr oge Ultagh

Cormock Ultagh

Newerie, Ulster

Lariege, Crevyn

-

Exclude murder before rebellion

1602/6761

James, Cormack, Gilleduffe,

Shane, Deirmot, Francis,

Donogh and Owen Ultagh

Province of Ulster

 

-

 

Followers of Rory O’Donnell, gent

 

 

 

Appendix 4 Distribution of  McNulty and McAleavy (variant of Dunleavy) Households in County Down based on Various Internet Records (Accessed 1 February 2006)

Record[70]

McAnulty

McNulty+V[71]

Totals

McAleavy

McAlevy+V[72]

Totals

Flax Grants 1796

2

-

2

1

-

1

Freeholders 1793-1829

12

4

16

7

2+11

13

Tithes 1827-1834

13

7

20

11

3+7

21

Griffith Valuation 1863/4

42

6

48

14

13+15

42

1901 Census

16

31+2

49

27

0+3

30

Totals for County Down

85√

48√+2√

135√

53√

18√+36√

107√

 



[1] 19 March 2008, 7621 words, 18 pages,  3 Figures, 5 Tables, 4 Appendices, 850 kB

[2] Uncertainties in detail are indicated by a question mark “?” or by “c” meaning circa in relation to dates.   

[3] John O’Donovan (Editor & translation) Annals of the Four Masters, 7 volumes, Dublin 1851.

[4] Murtough Macan-Ulty is reported as “Murtogh Mac Nulty” in Owen Connellan (Ed) Annals of Ireland, Dublin, 1846, page 93, as “Muircertach Mac-in-Ulltaigh” in B Mac Carthy (Ed) Annals of Ulster, Volume 2, Dublin, 1893, pages 360, 361 and as Muirchertach Mac in Ultaig” in A Martin Freeman (Ed) Annals of Connacht 1224-1544 Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies, 1996, pages 172-173.

[5] B Mac Carthy (Editor) Annals of Ulster, Volume 3, Hodges and Figgis, Dublin, 1895, pages 364, 365.

[6] Francis John Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings. Batsford, London, 1973.

[7] Dennis Walsh “Ireland’s History in Maps” http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/ihm/ire1200.htm Jan 2007 

[9] Brian Mitchell The Top 140 Surnames in Derry Foyle Community Directory, 1989 Accessed 10/1/2007.

[10] Wm J Smyth Atlas of Family Names in Ireland www.ucc.ie:8080/cocoon/doi/atlas?section=N1086C 

[11] George F Black, The Surnames of Scotland. New York Public Library, 1974, pages 231,232

[12] Fergus Gillespie, Chief Herald, Genealogical Office, Dublin, Personal communication, 22 February 2007

[13] The Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns Vol 3 1586-1603 Elizabeth, Fiant 6494, de Búrca, Dublin

[14] G Dunlevy Kelley A Genealogical History of the Dunlevy Family Ohio 1901 www.ancestry.com p 44.

[15]Donegal Family Names” http://www.dun-na-ngall.com/general.html Accessed 14 March 2007

[16] Owen Connellan, (Editor) Annals of Ireland (1171 to 1616), Dublin, 1846

[17] John O’Hart The Irish and Anglo-Irish Landed Gentry Irish University Press, 1969, page 61, 172, 173

[18] “McNulty (Coat of Arms).gif  Posted on 2003/07/04” Accessed 16 February 2007 http://groups.msn.com/CelticOrigins/irishcoas.msnw?action=ShowPhoto&PhotoID=431

[19] Edward MacLysaght Irish Families - Their Names, Arms and Origins, 4th Ed, Dublin, 1985, pp 165, 166

[20]Burke's General Armory” http://www.4crests.com/bugear.html Accessed 7 March 2007

[21] Fergus Gillespie, Chief Herald, Genealogical Office, Dublin, Personal communication, 22 February 2007

[22] G Dunlevy Kelley A Genealogical History of the Dunlevy Family Ohio 1901 www.ancestry.com pp 1, ix.

[23] O’Donlevy, O’Ferrall’s Linea Antiqua, Volume 2, Genealogical Office, Dublin, MS 146, page 446, and Heraldic Sketches (Dunlevy/Lloyd), Genealogical Office, Dublin, MS 125, page 236.

[24] Gerard Crotty “Heraldy in Ireland, Part Eight” Irish Roots, 4, 1998, page 22.

[25] Dunlevy  Betham Sketch Pedigree Series, Manuscript 11, Genealogical Office, Dublin, pages 345-348

[26] G D Kelley, A Genealogical History of the Dunlevy Family Ohio 1901 www.ancestry.com pp 46, 88-133

[27] The Rev Andrew Dunlevy DD, LLD (b 1694, Sligo) was a grandson of Anthony Dunlevy I, a prefect of the Irish College in Paris and author of the catechism.

[28] Elizabeth A McNulty, McNulty Family History, USA Library of Congress, 1987, 134 pages

[29] Charlotte Olsheske, The McNulty Family Tree, National Library of Ireland, G9292 m 35, c 1998, 226 pp.

[30] Edward MacLysaght Irish Families - Their Names, Arms and Origins, 4th Ed, Dublin, 1985, page 12

[31] Nollaig Ó Muraíle (Editor) The Great Book of Irish Genealogies, Dublin, 2003, Vol 3 p 505, Vol 5 p xv

[32] “Down Survey” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_Survey Accessed 20 Feb 2007

[33] William Petty Political Anatomy of Ireland posthum. (1672, pub. 1691) Dublin 1860 142pp. Irish population in 1652 was 850,000 (160,000 protestants) although K H Connell The Population of Ireland, 1750-1845, Oxford, 1950, p 25 estimates 2.2 million in 1687 based on an occupancy of 5-6 persons/house.

[34] Seamus Pender (Ed) A Census of Ireland circa 1659, IMC, Dublin 1939, pp 18, 19, 45, 48, 54, 59, 367.

[35] The townlands of “Donlegh” in Newry and “Dunlady” in Castlereagh may indicate a Dunleavy presence

[36] William J Smyth Atlas of Family Names in Ireland www.ucc.ie:8080/cocoon/doi/atlas?section=N1086C    

[37] Robert Bell The Book of Ulster Surnames Blackstaff, Belfast, 1988, page 180.

[38] John Grenham Tracing your Irish Ancestors, third Edition, 2006, page 297 (“1796 Catholics Emigrating from Ulster to Mayo, Seanchas Ardmhaca 1958, pages 17-50; also “Petition of Armagh migrants in the Westport area” Cathair na Mart, Volume 2, Number 1, Appendix)

[39] Pat Deese Ulster Migrants 1796 to County Mayo (No McNulty nor Dunleavy was among these migrants who fled from Catholic persecution)  http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~deesegenes/emg.html

[40] John O’Hart The Irish and Anglo-Irish Landed Gentry Irish University Press, Shannon, 1969, page 61

[41] G D Kelley, A Genealogical History of the Dunlevy Family Ohio 1901 www.ancestry.com pp xi, 163

[42] “Nulty Home Page” (and Family Reunion, Co Meath, 2000) http://users.nac.net/pkd/  Accd 20 Mar  2007

[43] Griffith’s Valuation 1848-1864 includes 193 McKinleys and 72 variants in Ireland, predominantly in Antrim (73), Armagh (48), Donegal (38), Tyrone (27) and Down (19).

[44] Seán De Bhulbh,  Sloinnte uile Éireann-All Ireland Surnames Limerick 2002, page 346

[45] George F. Black, The Surnames of Scotland. New York Public Library, 1946, page 230.

[46] History of the Dunlop/Dunlap Name http://www.clandunlop.org/ Accessed 7 February 2007

[47] Robert Bell, 1988 The book of Ulster surnames  Blackstaff,  Belfast, page 60

[48] Edward MacLysaght, The Surnames of Ireland, 5th Edition, Dublin, 1980, “Introduction”, page x

[49] George F. Black, The Surnames of Scotland. New York Public Library, 1946, page 534.

[50] “Family Tree DNA Tutorial” http://www.familytreedna.com/tutorial_A.html Accessed 28 February 2007

[51] Brian McEvoy and Daniel G Bradley “Y-Chromosomes and the extent of patrilineal ancestry in Irish surnames” Human Genetics 119, 2006, pages 212-219. Data on http://www.gen.tcd.ie/molpopgen/data.htm

[52] McNulty DNA profile http://homepage.eircom.net/~ihdp/ihdp/r1b1c.htm e-mail austinrock@eircom.net

[53] Seán De Bhulbh,  Sloinnte uile Éireann-All Ireland Surnames Limerick, 2002, page 138

[54] Seán De Bhulbh,  page 353.

[55] Seán Quinn, Surnames in Ireland  Irish Genealogy Press, Dublin 2000

[56] Edward MacLysaght, Irish Families - Their Names, Arms and Origins, 3rd  Edition, Dublin, 1972, p 244

[57] Edward MacLysaght, The Surnames of Ireland, 5th Edition, Irish Academic Press, Dublin, 1980, p 238

[58] Robert Bell, The Book of Ulster surnames  Blackstaff,  Belfast, 1988, page 180

[59] Thirteen McNulty families were listed in Brian Mitchell, The Foyle Community Directory, Derry, 1989  

[60] Brian Mitchell, The Surnames of Derry, Genealogy Centre, Derry, 1992, page 105

[61] Edward MacLysaght, Irish Families - Their Names, Arms and Origins, 3rd  Ed, Dublin, 1972, pp 118,119

[62] Brian Mitchell, The Surnames of Derry, Genealogy Centre, Derry, 1992, page 39

[63] Edward MacLysaght, The Surnames of Ireland, 5th Edition, Irish Academic Press, 1980, pages 77 and 93.

[64] John O’Hart Irish Pedigrees Second Series M H Gill, Dublin 1878, page 172

[65] Robert Bell, 1988 The book of Ulster surnames  Blackstaff,  Belfast, page 60.

[66] Seán De Bhulbh, Sloinnte uile Éireann  Comhar-Chumann Íde Naofa, Faing, Co. Luimnigh, 2002, p 138.

[67] Edward MacLysaght, The Surnames of Ireland, 5th Edition, Irish Academic Press, 1980, page 292

[68] The Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns Vol 3 1587?-1603? Elizabeth, Vol 4 Index, de Búrca, Dublin

[69] Wm O’Sullivan (ed) The Strafford Inquisition of County Mayo IMC 1958, 246 pp (Indexed entries, pp 198, 199, “Nick Evaddy, see McEvaddy”, “Ny Donnell, see McDonnell” and “Ny Higgin, see O Higgin)

[70] Flax Grants 1796, Tithe Applotment 1827-1834, Griffiths Valuation 1863/4 and 1901 Census sourced on http://www.caora.net/find.php and Freeholders’ Records www.proni.gov.uk/freeholders/search.asp

[71] McNulty variants include McNaulty (2); no returns were reported for MacAnulty, MacNulty, Nulty

[72] McAlevy variants include Dunleavy (2), McAlavy (2), McAleavey (9), McAlevey (6), McElavey (1), McEleavy (1), McEleevy (3), McElevey (3), McElevy (1), McEllevey (2), McEllevy (1) and McIleavy (5)