Re: Tarnawski information 1852 - 1898
From late 18th century to 1919 wies/village Wierzchniakowce was hamlet size > Borszow was both powiat (adm district) and gmina (judicial-tax district) > Historic Galicia Province, administered by ethnic Poles for the Austro Hungarian Empire.The filial GC Parish was in Wysuczka and the filial RC Parish was in Borsczow.During Interwar Period (1919-1938) this region came under Reconstituted Poland's domain.Technically Poland had not existed as a geopolitical entity for the previous 125 yrs.For a very short time in 1938 people from this immediate region declare themselves as independent.Unfortunately this lastedfive minutes and again the Ruthenians/Ukrainians were under another heel.Post WW2 this area was attached to SSR Ukraine under the Soviets until 1991, when Ukrainebecame independent.
Sleepy, charming selo Verkhnyakivtsi =???????????.
Ihor was kind enough to provide you w/some metrykal data.You may find additional RC & GC info at following. RC Church Registers in Borszczow have been filmed
for 1743-1888 by LDS.
Excerpt from Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Peasant strikes in Galicia and Bukovyna. In the first years of the 20th century Ukrainian peasants in Galicia and Bukovyna who hired themselves out as agricultural laborers on landlords' estates participated in a series of mass strikes accompanied by other forms of agrarian unrest. Members of the Ukrainian Radical party, particularly Ivan Franko and Viacheslav Budzynovsky, had begun to propagate the idea of agrarian strikes, which they took from the example of Irish populists in the mid-1890s. Sporadic strikes of agricultural laborers broke out in Bukovyna and Galicia in 1897 and 1898, but the first large-scale strike occurred in Borshchiv county, in Galicia, in 1900. In 1902 a wave of agrarian strikes of unprecedented magnitude encompassed some 400 villages in eastern Galicia. In Husiatyn and Terebovlia counties over two-thirds of the landlords' estates faced work stoppages. Another strike wave of roughly equal magnitude broke out in Eastern Galicia in 1906; in 1905–7 over 20 agrarian strikes took place in Bukovyna. The outbreak of the Revolution of 1905 across the border in the Russian Empire helped to motivate the latter wave of strikes, especially since neighboring Right-Bank Ukraine was also the scene of massive agrarian unrest.
The strikes were precipitated by low wages, the maltreatment of laborers, and disputes over access to forests and pastures. In the course of the strikes the peasants sometimes engaged in violent confrontations with strikebreakers and occupied seignorial land, especially pastures. County authorities called in the military to quell strikes and related unrest and made the village communities quarter the soldiers at their own expense. Hundreds of peasants were arrested in 1902, and dozens in 1906. The backbone of the strike movement tended to be small-holding peasants; landless agricultural laborers, who were traditionally excluded from collective decision-making in the village, and who were also much moredependent on their daily wages, tended to stay in the background. As a result of the strikes agricultural wages rose throughout almost all of Ukrainian Galicia and Bukovyna.
Although the strikes arose primarily in response to socioeconomic conditions, they were not without political and national dimensions. The majorstrike waves broke out spontaneously, without prior organization. But once under way the strikes were supported by activists of the major Ukrainian political parties. Among the most prominent activists in the strike movement was the social democrat, Semen Vityk. Members of the Ukrainian Radical party and the Ukrainian Social Democratic party emphasized the social aspects of the strikes, but the National Democratic party pointed out that they had a strong national component as well, since, in the main, Ukrainian peasants were using the strikes against Polish landlords. Most Polish politicalparties in Galicia, with the prominent exception of the Polish Social Democratic party, condemned the strikes as a threat to Polish hegemony in the region. The strikes contributed to the exacerbation of Polish-Ukrainian tension in Galicia. They also demonstrated that the Ukrainian village was capable of co-ordinating effective actions in pursuit of its interests.
Najdus, Walentyna. Szkice z historii Galicji, 2 vols (Warsaw 1958–60)Franko, Ivan. ‘Bauernstreiks in Ostgalizien,’ in Beiträge zur Geschichte und Kultur der Ukraine: Ausgewählte deutsche Schriften des revolutionären Demokraten, 1882–1915 (Berlin 1963)Botushans’kyi, Vasyl’. ‘Pidnesennia straikovoï borot’by selian Pivnichnoï Bukovyny na pochatku XX st. (1900–1907 rr.),’ Mynule i suchasne Pivnichnoï Bukovyny, no. 1 (1972)
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 4 (1993).]
Today ??????????? > ??????????? ????? = Boschivskij raion/district > ????????????? ??????? = Ternopilska oblast(latest zip code48763) is a village of appx 690 and its location comes w/some very interesting ancient history.Archaeological digsin its immediate surrounding area indicate that there was human settlement here as far back as 5500BC.The people of the Trypillian Culture were predominantly an agrarian group, who invented thevery first indoor stove. They were the first (ever/anywhere) bread bakers. The Trypillian Civilization has been scientifically dated 5500BC-2750BC.Just to give you a handle on the time frame, this was PRE Pharaoh Period.
There is extensive evidence of these people, living in the Western Carpathian Mtns spanning to the Dnieper River , encompassing regions mostly in modern Ukraine, and some in Moldova and Romania. At their peak, the Trypillians built the largest Neolithic settlements on the continent that would be Europe, some of which had populations of up to 15,000 people. One of the most notable things about this civilization was that every 80 yrs or so, they would burn the settlements and rebuild, preserving layer upon layer of scientific data.
Trypillian society was matriarchal, with women heading the household, doing agricultural work, and manufacturing pottery, textiles and clothing. Hunting, animal husbandry and tool-making were the male responsibilities. The primary deity of this ancient population was female. The Trypillian culture developed a rich symbolic system based on their religious beliefs of the Great Goddess as the powerful giver and regenerator of life and the wielder of death.
One of the other things you might consider at a later date is participation in the National Geographic DNA study. You just might be able to establish a connection to one of the very few human clusters in Europe, living in what is today the Crimean Region, during the Little Ice Age, 25,000 yrs ago. https://genographic.nationalgeograph...n/journey.html
Tryllian Exhibit Lviv 2012