I think the Alcan, a former military Highway was not surveyed until the late 1930s. There was in 1932, two men, one Slim Williams, that drove two motorcycles from Fairbanks to Seattle. This was to show it was possible, and to promote support for a highway. They use old miners and hunting trails most of the way to Fort Nelson or Dawson Creek. There may have been early surveys. There was telegraph trail through Canada. There never has been a road to Nome. Now, as in the past, one goes by water or air to get there. I have seen a documentary about the building of the ALcan, and it seems that they built it as they went. They would send a survey crew ahead to flag a route, a day ahead of the bulldozer and road equipment. The telegraph trail has been there since 1898 goldrush or before.