If you ever read this, I have figured out this family because they are my ancestors also.It took a long time, but thanks to your many posts about them in this forum and elsewhere I have them finally figured out.
I know that the family originates in Worcester Co, MA.I think the head of the family is another Henry Atherton born circa 1760 or earlier.You can find them on the 1810 census in Brookline Twp, Worcester Co, MA.
Henry Atherton and Naomi Porter moved to Butler Co Ohio in 1818 with their children except for Henry who married your Sylvinia Buell.Whether Henry moved to Ohio first and returned later for Sylvinia in Ledyard NY, we will never know.
Here's the family: Henry Atherton b. 3 Mar 1782 Roxbury, Worcester Co, MA Naomi Porter b. 1785 Massachusetts
Children: Henry b. 3 Sept 1807 Worcester Co MA married Sylvinia Buell William b. 21 May 1808 Worcester Co MA married Elizabeth Willey Naomi b. 1814 Worcester Co, MA no record of marriage Augustus b. 1817 Worcester Co MA married Letta Benjamin Franklin Atherton b. 21 Jul 1820 Butler Co, OH married 1st Elizabeth Newell and 2nd Elvira Brown
The other children you have mentioned in your posts I have been unable to confirm.Those are Elsie Atherton, Mary Atherton, and Frank Atherton.
I have a lot more information on this family for anyone interested including names of children and who some of them married.
I hope to hear from you someday Barbara.Thanks for leaving me a trail with your many posts because otherwise I might have never found this family and my ancestry.