In response to questions of Birmingham Irish heritage: Birmingham actually is an Irish name (Norman-Irish), which I was surprised to learn myself. It did originate from Birmingham, England, as a knight or knights who participated in William the Conqueror's army that won England in 1066 were awarded this remote Saxon hamlet as a lordship. The name originally was a title (de Bermingham, meaning "of Bermingham"). But by 1174, at least two Birminghams, who were brothers, joined an expedition to Ireland and became lords there, through conquest. Most settled in the West or center of Ireland. Areas such as Galway, Mayo, Kildare, Kerry and Cork. The family muliplied greatly, and also became mostly Irish in nature, marrying Irish, speaking Irish, adopting their customs and culture. They were greatly allied with the Burke family, another great Irish name of Norman origin that was originally "de Burgo". The Birminghams, along with the Burkes, continued distancing themselves from England over hundreds of years and increased greatly when England became Protestant while the Birminghams, along with the native Irish, remained Catholic and fought to remain that way. Over the years, the name has developed many forms and spellings, including Birmingham, Bermingham, Burmingham, Brimingham, Bringham, Bromaghim, Brumaghim, Brummigan, MacFeorish, MacFeorais, and Corish. Most of the Birminghams in the United States originate from Ireland rather than England, due to the great mass Irish immigrations during the Potato Famine of the 1840s and constant warfare in Ireland during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Most entered the United States through New York, Boston, and New Orleans. However, many of those living in the Southern United States, besides Louisiana, originate from a settler of Maryland (the Catholic colony in America) around 1690, possibly after the loss by the Catholic Irish Army of King James at the Battle of the Boyne.