Merchants in London and Lancaster
London Merchants on Both Sides of The Pond
We opened with two source documents connecting our Thomas to "Barford" on both sides of The Pond - the birth in Bedfordshire and the marriage in Lancaster.Along with further answers, however, there are some issues with the continuation of the proof.Just when did our Thomas arrive in Lancaster?
A. First and Foremost, Ancell did not have a son named Thomas
GenForum Posting of Ruth Sehen on 23 Aug 2012 provides ... some ... proof beyond speculation:
"I think aheinly's analysis [below] of Captain Thomas Carter's parentage as William Carter and
Anne Emmery is very convincing".[Only ..... if you include her added data].
"The parish registers of St Dunstan in the West which are available on Ancestry.com
support this record of Ansell's children. George was baptised in 1619, John in 1622,
Ansell and Jane in 1629 and William in 1632. Ansell's will also does not mention a son named Thomas".
[A will of 1658 is Moot - Capt. Thomas Carter is proven in Lancaster VA by 1653]
B. Legitimate confusion of a Sixth Son ... vs. ... Six Sons ...
"I also have a copy of the Harleian Society's publication of the Visitation Returns
(published 1880) and there has clearly been a misinterpretation in one of the two books:
Ansyle Carter of London grocer *** 6 sonn *** living ao 1634 = Jane da. of John Myles
Georgeeldest sonne & heireJohnAnsyleWilliamandJane Carter". No, it does not say "sonnes"
"The difference is that in this interpretation Ansell Carter is effectively described as the sixth son of
William & Mary (it was a fairly common practice in Visitation pedigrees to specify which number son or
daughter an individual was), rather than as having six sons". [Rules of Primogeniture]
C.However, two reliable sources conflict in the date of birth:
"YOUNG THOMAS CARTERCapt. Thomas Carter Sr. (b. Sep 1632)",vs. the Prayer Book entry: c
"Thomas Carter Senr. Departed this Life on the 22d ofOctober 1700 Aged about 70 years".
For all of their business accumen, would the Carters of Lancaster be off by two years?
However ..... would a twelve year old orphan have access to the details of his birth?
Yet 1632 would still allow for the *** 1653 Tithe Listing *** in Lancaster County VA for the
Thomas Carter (with four servants) to be at that magic age of 21 - per Aunt Fanny and Common Sense.
Did the Young Thomas ARRIVE with the four servants, thanks to Uncle Thomas?
Did he just arrive in 1653?Did he arrive as "Mister"?
D. Another conflict, this time with the statement of Aunt Fanny:
"Grandfather Thomas Carter son of a London merchant of good family"vs.
"THE FATHER William"[never in London - and was a Glover, not a Merchant]
"He and his spouse died before their children were adults".
[Bedfordshire Parish Registers, Vol 39, Kempston, 1570-1812:
Anne Emmery 1637 Mary Spencer 1641 - yet a wife Anne in 1644]
25 MAY 1606 Kempston, Bedfordshire - 5 SEP 1644 in Bedfordshire
"Young Thomas Carter lost his mother at the age of 4, a stepmother
at the age of 6, and his father at the age of 10.  When Young Thomas
was 16, his grandfather Thomas Carter "the Older" died".[Summer 1647]
Thomas' will was dated 11 August 1647 at Kempston, Bedfordhsire, England
proved 5 October 1647 in the Perogative Court of Canterbury. He was listed
as"Thomas Carter, the elder of Kempston, Bedfordshire, gentleman":
I give my grandchild Thomas Carter the residue of my estate.
My son Thomas Carter to be the Administrator during the minority
of my grandson Thomas Carter who is under 21 [and orphaned]
E.The answer lies with "THE UNCLEThomas Carter" (1612), the son in the will and older brother of Ancell.
[London Visitation pg. 149]"He was born in Great Barford and went to London where he was an apprentice in 1634.From 1647 to *** 1653 *** he was responsible for financing the career and education of his nephew".
Separately, where did Dr. Miller come up with a son four years old in London?
"In the Harleian Society version, Ansell also had a daughter, Jane, instead of a son,
James, and no son Thomas (*** as the reference to a Thomas was to his brother ***)".
As cleary diagrammed on Page 149 above for the London Visitation of 1634.
"Grocer and Citizen of London" was a title of prestige, Anscell and George Carter began their wills with this title."
All put together, our Capt. Thomas Carter had two uncles and a first cousin as Merchants of London -
more than a fair substitute for a father, per our opening comments from Aunt Fanny.
F.Despite our opening criticism, Dr. Miller did not manufacture data; there was a 1653 Tithe, but we can
not find the names:"He appears first in the tax list of Lancaster County in 1653 when "Mr. Tho: Carter" paid
tithes on himself and four servants".
From a Lawson Family Website - citing just one of the several collectors on the "Corrotoman" - Book 1
will be on Reel 1. at The Library of Virginia: [We now know Barford was NW of King Carters Corrotoman].
Lancaster County, VA, Deeds, Wills and etc., Book 1, 1652-1657, page 90 - Court, 24 October 1653.
Whereas this County of Lancaster is indebted to these several sums following in total
24,896 pounds of tobacco to ye several men hereafter mentioned ye Court hath therefore
ordered that 40 pounds of tobacco per poll be laid upon every tithe person in this County
to be levied by ye several Collectors within their several limits as is hear after specified:
Mr. Row Lawson to collect from ye eastern most side of Costatawoman downward by ye
South side of Rappahannock River for these families. (Here followed the names of
fourteen heads of families with 67 tithes, which was paid.) Part of what he collected was
to pay himself for his salary - 370 pounds of tobacco.
Using this Lawson Excursus as a model, it would be most helpful to examine Roll 1. of the Lancaster County deeds for the description of the area where the Thomas Carter is listed.That would settle the issue of the Thomas Carters of the Isles of Wight, close associates of King Carter, and known to be in the area at the time just before the arrival of our Thomas.We now know Barford was out on the water from the town of Merry Point - but this may not have been the original settlement of our Thomas.
With the subsequent entry in the Prayer Book for the marriage "Mr. Thomas Carter of Barford, Lancaster County", our Thomas clearly descends from Bedfordshire.Contrary to the transcriptions of the bible, Barford is not in fact seen again within.And it really does not matter that there are no legal transactions to be found with this nomer!Although the following is overwhelming circumstantial evidence, it is not proof in the strict sense; therefore William - and not his younger brother Ancell - is "probably" the father of our Thomas.