Below is the story 'Extracts from contributions to the history of the family von Cramm', as I received it 26 years ago.
(1) Does anyone have any information on the whereabouts of the original genealogical correspondence sent from UK to USA?
(2) It is recorded that a John Cram, was baptized 29 Feb 1595/6, Bilsby, Lincsolnshire, son of Thomas. It is also recorded that a John Cram married Hester White, 8 Jun 1624, Bilsby, Lincolnshire, and went on to be the progenitor of the American Crams. But are these two Johns one and the same person? And,why did the early genealogists choose John Cram of Newcastle as the husband of Hester White?
In the will below, Burchard Cramm promised to will to his son Burchard, 'rent charges from the land of John Hadworth of Harrington' only if the said Burchard changed his awful ways. There is a Harrington near Bilsby, in Lincolnshire - is this the connection with the Newcastle and Lincolnshire Crams?. Also, Below, Robert Cram, of Holly Hall, Felling, England, told inquiring Americans, in the 1880's that John Cram, b1607, Newcastle, had left Felling, and emigrated to Boston. It is just possible that John Cram, b.1607, Newcastle, was willed the rent charges of Harrington, Lincolnshire (near to Boston), in his brother Burchards stead. John could have went there and met Hester White. It is likely that the first Crams to settle in England, settled on the Lincolnshire coast. I must stress that this is only a theory, and I find it highly likely that our American cousins have it right when they say that John Cram, bt.29 Feb 1595/6, Bilsby, Lincolnshire is their progenitor. If we could find the age at death of this John Cram, d.5 Mar 1681, Hampton Falls, NH., then this would clear up any doubt in my mind between John Cram, bt.29 Feb 1595/6, Bilsby, and John Cram, b.1607, Newcastle.
EXTRACTS FROM CONTRIBUTIONS
TO THE HISTORY OF THE FAMILY
COURT COUNCILLOR HETTLING
IN THE YEAR
THE FAMILY VON CRAMM
The origin and the appointed lot of the earliest of the family Von Cramm lies in obscurity.It is believed that a certain Aschwin Von Cram came to Lower Saxony in the train of Ludwig the Pious; much more probable it is that the family Von Cramm was of purely German origin and that the village Cramm near Wolfenbuttel was the home of their ancestors.The exact agreement in the family name with that of the village speaks decisively for this hypothesis.In the former times, and up to the 16th century the family Von Cramm spelled its name exactly as that of the village is spelled today, and near the spot in earlier times stood a castle clearly indicating that it might be counted the cradle of a distinguished race. At all events the Von Cramm s had possessions in Cramm.
In 1455 Heinrich Von Cramm pledged a manor in Cramm and half a hide of land called Toddenland, to the Monastery of the Cross in Brunswick. Authentic records of the V.C. s appear first at Goslar in a document in possession of the family of Von Walmoden of Walmoden, a contract with the Bishop of Hildesheim, drawn up in 965.To this nine knights have signed their names, and among them is a V.C.The family spelled their name Cramm or Kramm, also Kram.
The Von Cramm s appear at the close of the 12th century as an honoured and wealthy race of knights, high in esteem and favour with the ecclesiastical and secular princes of the south western part of Lower Saxony, the dukes of Brunswick, and Bishops of Hildesheim, the Counts of Woldenberg and others, and they formed various alliances in marriage with the most distinguished families of the nobility in that neighbourhood.Some of the Von Cramm s are famed as ministers, namely of the Bishop of Hildesheim; others are members of cathedral chapters and other institutions.Most of the family has the title of knight, or squire.
In very many transactions of importance the knights Von Cramm were introduced as witnesses with such names as Von Steinberg, Von Hardenberg, Von Weferlingen (extinct), Von Saldern, Von Schwecheld, Von Oldershausen, and others.
Ludolf V.C., minister in service of Conrad, Bishop of Hildesheim, 1246.
Burchard V.C., Abbot of the Monastery of Ilsenberg, 1297.
Burchard, knight of St. John Hospitaller, 1317.
Gotschalk, Provost of the cathedral of Hildesheim, 1405.
Berno and Ludolf V.C. in a record of Bishop Adelagus of Hildesheim, 1181
Burchard V.C. was present in 1275 when Count Luitgerus of the island announced that the possessions of the Bishop of Lamspringe were free from the jurisdiction of his domain.
Ludolf V.C. was a witness of the bequest, which Bishop Otto of Hildesheim made to the Monastery of Amelungborn in 1272.
Burchard V. C. helped to mediate the reconciliation between Otto Von Luneburg and the city of Hanover, 1291.There were mentioned at this time property and landed estates in Lesse, Volksheim, Diekelbe, Machtshausen, Grossenhure, Bokeln, Grosz Elbe, Saldzderhelden, Oelber, Gittelde and others.Especially had the V. C. s the good fortune to acquire many mortgages of considerable value.
Gottschalk V. C. and his sons Gottschalk and Burchard in 1349 loaned to Magnus, Duke of Brunswick, 315 half-ounce marks, for which he gave them as security the customs of Linden.
Heinrich V. C. received the castle Koldingen by mortgage from the Bishop of Hildesheim, 1380.
On the other hand, also, old family estates and hides of land were sold or bartered.
Burchard, the knight, and Squire Dietrich sold several pieces of property in Nettlingen to the Monastery of St. Michael of Hildesheim, 1315.
The Von Cramm s appear not only in the retinue of princes and as witnesses, but also at times as independent sharers in their treaties and other transactions.In the year 1414, e.g., they allied themselves with Duke Wilhelm, the Elder, and the city of Hanover, against Dukes Otto and Frederich of Luneburg, also in the year 1457 the Emperor Frederich III gave a letter of protection to the Monastery of Richenberg, to the Archbishop of Magdeburg and the Duke of Brunswick, in which he especially entrusted the nobles Asseburg and Von Cramm with the care and protection of the monastery.
In 1472 the Von Cramm s were drawn into a quarrel with the knights Von Schmicheld, in which several of the neighbouring families of the nobility were involved, and in which the city of Goslar also took part as an ally of the Von Cramm s.
The prosperity of the family increased with their increasing influence.They acquired several new mortgages, and towards the close of the 15th century their possessions were widely extended, especially in the neighbourhood of Hildersheim.There belonged to them among others, Burgdoff, Lesse, Volkesheim, Oelber, Liebenburg,
Gegardshagen, Diegelbe, Woltingerode and Horste. They possessed single landed estates in many places, e.g. in Nettlingen, Barrel, Grosz Elrede, as well as a share in the Ramelshergen mines at Goslar.
The family branched into two main lines called the Ashwinian and Burchardian lines, following those names which in one and the other occurred the most frequently.From which nearest common ancestor each of these lines proceeded, and how they agreed about the possessions of the ancestral property, is not definitely disclosed.Only this is certain, that towards the close of the 14th century the lines were already divided off, and that each line possessed the half of the many pieces of property, e.g. Volkesheim, the tithes of Lesse, Grosz Elbe, etc.Yet there seems to have been no division by death, but by some direct arrangement by which all the legal requirements of a mutual succession by inheritance were strictly observed.It follows very clearly from this that the alienation or sale of properties which one line made very frequently must have met with the approval of the other line.Whether an account of this division, the separation of the estate of Oelber in halves, was brought about can with difficulty be made clear.Likewise as little is known by what means the family of Bortfeld came into the possession of a half.Possibly the Aschwinian line sold its half to Bortfeld, for one finds always that only the Burchardian line held possession of Oelber.The Aschwinian line had no ownership in it.
The Aschwinian line
His sons Siegfried and Aschwin I.To them in 1415 Duke Otto mortgaged a half of the castle Sensen for 1000 Rheinish florins.
Siegfried left one son, Aschwin II, who brought to his line the hereditary office of Cupbearer of the Principality of Hildesheim.Lived about 1441.
Aschwin III, lived about 1457.
Aschwin IV.A distinguished military commander.At a time when the equestrian service of liegemen had for the most part become a thing of the past, and standing armies had not yet become common, single individuals came forward as military commanders, (called in Italian, Condothierie) who carried on war as a profession.With now greater, now smaller bodies of troops, recruited by themselves and equipped, they hired out for a specified time and pay in the service of domestic or foreign princes.
To this class of commanders belongs Aschwin Von Cramm, in whose praise it was said that he distinguished himself beyond most of his competitors, not only by his practical knowledge of war and his bravery, but also by his piety and benevolence.His life, so far as known, presents an almost unbroken series of military expeditions and knightly adventures.One first finds mention of him among the German mercenaries with which Duke Karl Von Geldern accompanied Francis I of France on his first expedition to Italy.The number of men was 6000 strong and they bore the title ofThe Black Troup , following the colours of their squadron.
Aschwin Von Cramm took part in the famous battle of Marignano, 14 September 1515, to which the German troops gave the turning point of victory.On his return to the Fatherland he entered the service of Duke Heinrich Von Luneburg.He commanded the cavalry in the battle of Voltanen Heath, 28 June 1519, where he preeminently distinguished himself.This battle took place, as is well known, during the quarrels over the endowed institutions of Hildesheim.On the one side were the Duke Von Luneburg and Bishop Johann Von Hildesheim, and on the other the Dukes Von Calenbury and Von Wolfenbuttle.The latter suffered an entire defeat.Two Dukes and more than a hundred knights were taken prisoners, among whom was Burchard Von Cramm of the other line.
In the year 1522 Aschwin V. C. is found in the service of Frederich Von Holstein.This prince captured Copenhagen, expelled Christian II from Denmark, and himself seized upon the Danish crown.At the close of this war Aschwin V. C. went to the court of the Elector of Saxony, and was in the retinue of that prince at Dresden in 1524 at the marriage celebration of Joachim, Elector of Brandenburg, with the daughter of George, Duke of Saxony, and he took part in the tournament held on that occasion.The next year he led the Saxon troops against the rebellious peasants under Thomas Munger.
He took part in the battle of Frankenhausen and also influenced the Electors by his petitions and representations to treat the insurgents with greater forbearance and mercy than they had hitherto done.A short time afterward, when he accompanied the Elector Johann of Saxony to Wittenberg, began his acquaintance with Martin Luther, which ripened into such friendship that Aschwin V. C. stood as godfather to one of Luther s sons.The conversations, which they held together about the profession of war and the duties and obligations of military men, suggested to Luther the thesis,Is it Possible that Warriors also may be Saved?Wittenberg, 1527.
This thesis was dedicated and inscribed to his friend Aschwin Von Cramm, and stands also in the third part of his works.
In 1527 a tournament took place at Torgan, in which Aschwin V. C. distinguished himself and received as a reward a wreath and a golden sword.The wife of Nicolaus Von Minkwitz presented these to him. (Then follows some details of the tournament.)Shortly after this he entered the service of Duke Heinrich (the younger) of Wolfenbuttel, who equipped for theEmperor, Carl V, a splendid division of troops and led them to his assistance against the French and Venetians.In this expedition Aschwin V. C. held the command next to that of the Duke.They passed the Alps successfully, laid siege to Bergano and captured Lodi, but through famine and pestilence lost a greater part of their troops.Singly they were compelled to make their way back into Germany, the Duke in the disguise of a hostler.Aschwin had proceeded only as far as Chur in Graubunden when the epidemic attacked him, and he died on the very day in which he received news from home that his wife had passed away in giving birth to a daughter.Aschwin V. C. is supposed to have borne the expense of equipping his troops.He also had taken a mortgage of 900 florins in gold from Hans Von Gardenberg.That he was a knight of the Golden Fleece is not proven.
The following extract is from Spangenberg sMirror of the Nobility , 1594, page 58.
Aschwin Von Cramm was at all times an earnest lover of the gospel.On a certain occasion in conversation with Dr. Luther, he put this question: Whether with a good conscience one could follow war as a profession, or become a warrior? (Also many questions concerning military systems, the right to destroy and plunder, also on degrees of severity shown to prisoners).Then Dr. Luther announced his intentions to state in writing his opinions on these questions and afterwards wrote and gave to the press in 1527 his book
Is it possible that Warriors also may be Saved?Dedicated to Aschwin V. C., who meanwhile had stood godfather to Luther s little son.This book gave great pleasure to George, Duke of Saxony, a bitter enemy of Luther, who did not know its author at the time he read it.On learning whom its author was he exclaimed,
Ah! It is a pity that awful monk should have written so good a book.
Aschwin and Luther discussed among other subjects that of the excessive rate of usury, and Luther exclaimed,Have people no conscience which fears the judgement of God and of hell?
Aschwin repliedYes, Yes! Are you thinking that a miser lies hid in this fellow?Herr Aschwin said further that there were some in Saxony who almost daily let fall from their lips such vulgar proverbs as the following:Whoever says that the usurer is a sinner catches no money; her s my opinion free to you.
Luther repliedWhoever says that the usurer is not a sinner has no God. Here s my opinion free to you.And yethe added,one finds a doctor of theology who comes out boldly and not only justifies the usurer but also extols him as a Christian.
In the service of the Emperor, Carl V, in 1528, Aschwin V. C. went on the expedition with Heinrich, Duke of Brunswick, against the French and Venetian forces in Italy.On his homeward journey at Chur in Rhatien, he passed the sainted dead.Scarcely sixteen of the 2000 cavalry that Duke Heinrich led into Italy returned thence to their homes.
Aschwin IV left by his wife Margarethe Von Brandenstein, two sons, Heinrich and Aschwin.
Heinrich studied law at German universities and betook himself then to the University of Padua in Italy, where he died in 1545 in the 20th year of his age.
Aschwin V served under the crown prince Maurice of Saxony, where in 1550 he laid siege to the city of Magdeburg, and by a sortie he was made prisoner.By his marriage with Anna Von Veltheim he left one son, Aschwin VI, born in 1556, who died in 1578 when on a military expedition to the Netherlands.With him the Aschwinian line became extinct.The estates held in fief passed by his death to the Burchardian line.The separate legacies to the son, however, reverted to the feudal lords.The hereditary office of cup-bearer, a son s legacy from the Bishop of Hildesheim, was bestowed upon Matthias and Aschaz Von Veltheim, brothers of the widow of Aschwin V, and all the various properties adhering to this passed over to the family Von Veltheim.
Supplement to Aschwin V
Among the memorial monuments of the parish church at Weringerode which have been preserved to the present time is one of Aschwin Von Cramm, who, until past the middle of the 16th century occupied one of the five manors of the nobility belonging to the town.The figure of the dead man appears in sandstone life size, clad in mail and bear headed, with mustache and chin beard, also with decorations of honor and iron gauntlets.The left hand grasps a sword.At the right side is suspended a dagger, and an open helmet lies beside, decorated with five plumes.The inscription in Latin, reads:
In the year 1567 on Thursday of Holy Whitsuntide week, May 22, between the hours of 8 and 9 at evening, died Aschwin Von Cramm, son of Herr Aschwin the knight.Strict and honorable Christian and righteous in Christ Jesus, to whom he commended himself, and in whom he sleeps and awaits the joyful coming of Christ with the resurrection of all that believe according to the word of Christ the Comforter.Of his age the 43rd year, and he had lived with honorable, virtuous and beloved wife, the pious Anna Von Veltheim, 14 years.
As the Rector Magister Andr. Schoppins gives the account Aschwin Von Cramm had acted meritoriously in public affairs of Weringerode.He was by profession a warrior, and at the siege of Magdeburg, 1550, lay before the town under the Elector Maurice of Saxony, and on December 19th of that year, with Duke George Von Mecklenburg, was taken prisoner.This incident enabled him later to be of signal service to the town of Weringerode, for after Duke Mauritius had ordered the troops of Magdeburg to advance through the Hartz mountains, the commanders expressed their intentions to lie in a body for a time in this town, and house themselves according to their pleasure.When this purpose was told to our noble count and lord Herr Wolfgangen, the ruling lord of this domain, his Grace prevailed upon Aschwin V. C. to meet these troops and bargain with them on generous terms, lest the town should suffer irretrievable injury.
Von Cramm, as a special friend of the citizens, accepted the mission as one not to be set aside, and hastened to meet the troops with such speed that his horse was ruined, in order that the commanders might be induced to divide their troops into small squadrons and distribute them in the surrounding villages, and cause only one division a day to advance as far as Weringerode and that at night.Von Cramm particularly influenced the colonel when he told him that he had many good friends in the town, and he replied that Aschwin should cause their chattels to be brought into his enclosure that they might be safe, but Aschwin responded,Why, the same conditions keep the property of my friends and my godfather in safety that keep mine in safety.Whereupon the commander yielded to his petition and lay only one night in this town.The next morning he passed on over the Hartz Mountains, commanding that the troops, which lay outside in the surrounding villages, should here do no mischief.
The Burchardian Line
Trustworthy information from the same files show that this line begins with Burchard and Heinrich, Von Cramm brothers, who in 1366 brought the tithes of Lesse and the rank ofLordto their line.To them followed Gottschalk, Burchard, Bodo and Gerhard.These are expressly mentioned as the owners of one half of the estate of Oelber.In 1395 they concluded with Heinrich and Burchard Von Bartfeld, the possessors of the other half, a remarkable compact for security against aggression.They bound themselves by oath therein to allow all their standing disputes to be settled by arbitration, and if a quarrel should arise between them, they agreed that neither party should molest the other within the castle, or the definite boundary belonging to it, and that the castle itself should be defended against all external attacks by the joint warders, porters and guards of the tower.Also, neither should dispose of his share to a stranger, nor pledge the same unless the other owners of the property gave their consent.This compact was renewed 9 July 1585, by the owners of Oelber, at that time out of both families and the date changed.Copies of both these documents are found in the Canglei Legal Records.
The four Von Cramm s, of the castle previously mentioned, lived in great prosperity and they took advantage of the same to increase their possessions by means of new loans and mortgages.They acquired the jurisdiction of Schoppenstedt, the castle at Sensen, the customs at Giphove, the domain Ruthe, the domain Liebenberg, the baliwick at Zedemurrd, the castle at Gebardshagen, the castle Lichtenberg and other feudal tenures.
Among the descendants previously mentioned is Burchard III, who in the battle of Volten, 1519, fought against Aschwin Von Cramm and was made prisoner by the Luneburgers.He accompanied his Prince Erich, Duke of Calenberg, to the Imperial Diet at Ausburg in 1530, at which the Protestant princes read their so-calledConfession of Faith .In 1535 he signed the Celebrated compact between the brothers Duke Heinrich and Duke Wilhelm, knights of the House of Brunswick, by which the right of succession of the first born of the House of Brunswick was established as a fundamental principle.In his marriage with Armgard Von Veltheim he had 16 children, and he died in 1554.
Heinrich V was equerry for the House of Brunswick and later Stadtholder at Wolfenbuttel.At deputy and marshal at court ceremonies he became widely known, e.g., in connection with the oath of allegiance of the city of Brunswick in 1569, also by a tournament in Brunswick in 1573.Duke Julius remained extremely friendly to him up to the time of his death.In his last illness he inquired after his health in personal letters expressive of deep sympathy, sent his own court physician to attend him and supplied medicines and restoratives.He lived in childless marriage with Armgard Von Mahrenholtz. (Funeral sermon of Burchard (Heinrich) Von Cramm, Wolfenbuttel1587).His feudal tenures, especially that of Oelber, fell to the line whose ancestors was Heinrich II.
This Heinrich II died when he had scarcely reached manhood; and his widow, Tulta Von Steinberg, married Heinrich Von Soldern, and is thus the ancestress of the present Von Soldern family.He left two sons, Heinrich III and Burchard IV.
Burchard was carried in his youth to the Hessian court and there educated with Landgrave Wilhelm I, the Mediator, Wilhelm II Von Helle, 1500, he consolidated the Hessian territories.He remained continuously in the Hessian service and accompanied the Landgrave, Phillipp (Phillip II, The Magnanimous, 1504-1567) to the Imperial Diet at Augsburg in 1539.As a holder of mortgages he had in possession until his death the Hessian domain Trendelenberg. He was also among the citizens who came forward with Franz Von Sickingen in behalf of the Landgrave in 1518.His wife was Gertrude Von Boineburg, called Von Haustein.He had two sons, Franz and Burchard VI, and six daughters.
In his youth Franz was a page at the court of Erich the Elder of Brunswick.When Luther had publicly defended his doctrine before the Imperial Diet at Worms, Duke Georg Erich sent to him for his refreshment a silver tankard filled with Einhecker beer.Luther expressed his thanks in these words:As Duke Georg Erich today has thought of me, so may God think of him in his last conflict.
These words the Duke remembered in his death hour in 1541, and caused his page, Franz Von Cramm, to speak to him words of consolation drawn from the doctrines of Luther. (Seckendorf Histor Luther, Amismi p.11,p.173
TranslationThrough the words of Franz Von Cramm, a youth of noble birth, he sought strength and hope through the consolation of the gospel. )
Later, he entered the service of August, Elector of Saxony, and was present in 1554 when homage was paid to that prince at Magdeburg.In 1562 he was in the retinue of Landgrave Wilhelm of Saxony, at the crowning of the Catholic kings at Frankfort. (Hertzog s Elsasrische Chronik Vol. II, p.210.).He is here called Doctor Franz V. C. Finally he became the councilor of Duke Julius of Brunswick.He was a member of the committee appointed to investigate church affairs and abolish Papal customs, and with others of the nobility was security for the Duke when he borrowed 4500 marks of Rhenish silver from Grulzel Von Bartensleben.After the death of Duke Frederich Ulrich, when the heirs of Franz V. C. laid claim as legatees of the Bartenslegen estate on account of this security, the dishonest heirs contested, and by a lawsuit gained payment of part of the money due the Von Cramm s.(See Acta Von Cramm V. Bosen Erben.)
Burchard VI, brother of Franz, was also in the Hessian service and prefect at Marburg.He was likewise in many important transactions.There is deposited in Wolfenbuttel in the Baronial list of the family Von Cramm, a booklet in his own handwriting, very peculiar, but historically valuable as giving an idea of the culture of the times.It contains specifications of the entire equipment of the household; clothing, ornaments, and valuables belonging to himself, his wife and his daughter Anna; also the beds, bed linen, table linen, silverware, saddles, harnesses, weapons and numerous other things.
These brothers, Franz and Burchard Von Cramm, lived to see the extinction of all the other branches of the family, and they became the founders of the two still flourishing main lines, and inherited all the feudal estates and possessions which for centuries has been held by the family Von Cram.This property consisted of feudal estates granted by the Duke of Brunswick, by the great Monastery of Hildesheim, by the Landgrave of Hesse, and by the Monastery of St. Boniface at Hamela.Besides these they possessed a great amount of allodial property, lease-holdings and sheepwalks; e.g. in Grosz Elbe, Bokenem, Salzgitter, Segemunde, Ahlten, Holle, Hamela, Schladen, Lopke, Groszen, Hein, Opperhausen, Oelshausen, Sievershausen, Houershausen, etc., etc.In order to keep this property in the family these brothers, Franz and Burchard, at the Whitsuntide Festival in 1581 formed a compact of theHouse Von Cramm , which acquired validity as a family statute through the ratification of the Emperor Rudolf II, 31 October 1582.According to compact all feudal estates and allodial property should descend by inheritance to the male heirs of the line only; the daughters in each case to be settled with for 800 florins in gold.The brothers shared in such a way that each received the half of an estate.In 1592 the castle Oelber still belonged to the half in the hands of Bartfeld.With the division into Frankian and Burchardian lined begins a new period in the history of the family.
The Frankian Line
Franz I Cramm had descendants by two marriages, firstly with Gertrude Von Busch, secondly with Marie Von Sternberg-Bodenburg, four sons and two daughters: Gertrude, who married Von Werferlingen, and Anna, who married Von Alten.
Of the sons only Heinrich and Franz left children.
Franz Cramm was the first to make a permanent residence at Volkesheim, and he built there a large dwelling known from that time as the lower manor.He died in 1616 leaving six sons.According to the succession agreed upon in the compact of 1650 Schevan Von Cramm took possession of the property of Volkesheim.
Of the six sons Fritz Cramm deserves special mention.His learning and classical culture secured the favor of the Duke of Brunswick.He became court tutor of the oldest prince, Rudolf August, likewise councilor and cupbearer.Later, he went to the court of the Elector of Brandenburg and became the leading court-tutor in Berlin.He died in 1671.The Duke conferred upon him the office of Hereditary Grand Chamberlain, in 1655 and as feudal tenures the estates of Grosenbuttle, a manor in Terscheim, and the ecclesiastical fief in Kochingen, with many lease-holdings and revenues from tithings.The patronage of the church in Kochingen is today in the line of Aschwin Von Cramm.
In Koehler s Historical Reports, beyond the Erbland-Hof-Amten, mention is made of the Hereditory Chamberlains, Von Cramm, on the following occassions:
In connection with the funeral ceremonies of Duke August in 1666; with the third marriage of Duke Wilhelm August in 1710; also his funeral in 1731, and at the marriage of the crown prince Frederich Von Preussen, later Frederich the Great, with Princess Elizabeth Christian of Brunswick in 1733.
Note 1.It is the duty of the Hereditary Chamberlain to stand near the court table and pass to the princes a silver beaker to dip their fingers in.
Note 2.Compare Moser s Political Law, p.40.The oldest charter conferring upon Fritz Von Cramm the feudal tenures which belong to the office of Hereditary Chamberlain bears date 24 April 1655, and it is printed in Scheidt s Codex Diploma of Moser s Polit. Law of Brunswick, p.491.
Franz Cramm II, died 1661, was the only one of the six sons of Heinrich who continued the succession.He married Catherine Von Bulo and left six daughters; and three sons:
Joachim Ernst Cramm I was a captain in the service of Brunswick, and owner of the esate of Wangelin, in Mecklenberg.Was third Hereditary Chamberlain married Gertrude Von Poggewisch, in 1691.
Heinrich Christoph Cramm was colonel in the service of Brunswick.He married Anna Elizabeth Wolff Von Guttenberg.He died in battle in the Netherlands and his widow became chief governess at the court of Brunswick.She accompanied the princess Elizabeth to Vienna to the court of her husband, the Emperor Carl VI of Austria.
Hans Adolf Cramm I married Elizabeth Von Cramm of the house of Sampleben.He died in 1705.
Of these three brothers Heinrich had a numerous family, but his six sons died without issue.Several of them served in the army of Charles VI.It is very likely that they had followed their mother to Austria and engaged in the war of the Spanish Succession.
Rudolf August Cramm, the youngest brother, lived in Steiermark where he owned an estate.
Clara Hedwig Cramm, his daughter, born in 1688, married Count Johann Von Hardegg, Lord Chamberlain of the Empire. She is the ancestress of the still flourishing family Von Hardegg.After the death of her husband she became principal court governess of the crown princess, later Queen of Denmark.She died at Wolfenbuttle, 18 February 1742.
Hans Adolf Cramm II, the youngest son of Franz Cramm II, had two sons:
Frederick (Fritz) Heinrich Von Cramm and August AdolfVon Cramm, of whom only the last survived him.
August Adolf Cramm was the highly meritorious Privy Councilor, who in all transactions of the first period of the reign of Duke Carl Von Brunswick, is so frequently mentioned.He was born in 1683.He accompanied Prince Anton to the Russian Court as master of ceremonies, and remained there a few years.He was the most prominent minister in Brunswick from 1744 to 1753, also Hereditary Chamberlain.He began the construction of a residence in Volkesheim.
His only daughter married Von Taubenheim.
His property reverted to the descendants of
Joachim Ernst Cramm I(Eldest son of Franz Cramm II) who left four sons, of whom only the fourth, Joachim Ernst III, left sons.
Joachim Ernst III, castle commander of Mecklingerg Strelitz and colonel, 1776.Of his seven sons only the fifth, August Christian Cramm, who married Anna Elizabeth Von Kunck in 1779 had one son,
Thedal Friedrich Albert Ernst Cramm, born 1763-1800, court councilor of Brunswick. He made a bargain with Levin August Christoph Ernst Cramm of the Burchardian Line by which he received the upper manor at Volkesheim, thus uniting the property of the upper and lower manors so long divided.He married Countess Von Schulenberg Altenhausen.His sons:
Franz Burchard Cramm, standard bearer in the Prussian Guards, was killed in the battle of Leipzich in 1813.
Theodor Frederich Albert Cramm, 1800-1880, married Clara Maria Antoinette Von Krosigh.He adopted his wife s niece, Hedwig Von Krosigh as his own. Hedwig married Von Gardenstedt.At the death of Theodor Frederich Albert Cramm, Hedwig inherited Volkesheim, and so unfortunately this old family property was lost to the family Von Cramm.
Frederick (Fritz) Von Cramm, son of Franz, d.1671, was First Hereditary Grand Chamberlain of Brunswick (Shieds Codex Diplomaticus).The office formerly belonged to Von Netz, the Frosts, later the Chancellor Joachim Megusinger Von Fremdes, the Lord Samson Von Eltz.Duke Augustus canceled the latter grant for being obtained by false pretences, and also for neglect of some of the duties of the office.In 1655 the office was conferred upon Frederick (Fritz) Von Cramm of Volkesheim. At the time of investure it was agreed that the brothers of Frederick (Fritz) Von Cramm and their descendants and, in the case of extinction of said branches, the cousins of the Burchard branch should be entitled to the succession.
According to the original Bill of Investure of this office the liens consisted of the Principalities which included Wolfenbuttle and Merinde, also of Gottingen, and furthermore it consisted of a free court to the castle of Brunswick, half the toll tax of all the gates there, the castle Koenigs-Lutter, the castle Ampleben and other privileges and incomes principally from the district of Luneburg, also certain perquisites on occasion of the Ducal marriages, viz. Thebridellaugh , so called in the bill of investure, and which means a claim against the ducal wedding-bed. (Shieds Codex Diplomaticus to Moser s Brunswick States Rights).
The income from these sources being somewhat diminished, Frederick (Fritz) Von Cramm demanded some other lien in order to maintain the rank and splendor pertaining to said office, and obtained Gestenbuttle, later known as Von der Wense.In 1682 the privilege of brewing in Volkesheim was conferred on the Von Cramms and extended in its nature.
Note:The village Volbersen, the title of which belonged to the office, is not the dominion Volkesheim belonging to the Von Cramms, but is situated in the Luneburg dominion.(The oldest Bill of investure is printedin extensein Shied s Codex Diplomaticus to Moser s Brunswick States Rights).
The Hereditary Chamberlains of the family Von Cramm have been:
Frederich (Fritz)...............Von Cramm 1655 to 1671 Uncle ofNo.3, 4 & 5.
Henry Ernst.....................Von Cramm(his brother)d.1682.Uncle of No.3,4&5.
Joachim Ernst...................Von Crammd. 1690
Heinrich Christoph..............Von Crammd. 1693
John Adolph I...................Von Crammd. 1705
Franz George....................Von Crammd. 1746
August Adolph...................Von Crammd. 1763
Joachim Ernst III...............Von Crammd. 1767
August Christian................Von Cramm(son of no. 8)d. 1779
Louis August Christian..........Von Crammd. 1799
Theo. Albert Ernst Frederick....Von Cramm(son of No. 9)d. 1800
Frederick Charles August........Von Cramm(son of No. 10)d. 1812
Wolf Frederick Adolph...........Von Cramm(son of No. 12)d. 1815
This office ceased with the destruction of the German Empire by Napoleon.
The family branch of Oelber and Sampleben
Franz Jacob Cramm I, who inherited his father s share in Oelber, was Privy Councilor in service of the House of Brunswick.The Duke, himself, in many documents bears witness that in the Thirty Years War, Von Cramm had served him at peril of life and limb.
In 1627 he received the estate of Sampleben as a feudal tenure, likewise the village Kneillingen, from which the famousTill Eulenspiegelcame.(Eulenspiegel Owlsglass was the nave of a jester and title of a book written about him in 1519).Up to the year 1848 the family Von Cramm received the tithes from the Eulenspiegel manor.In the year 1685, with the death of Karl Von Bartfeld, this line became extinct, and the Von cramm s came into possession of their part of Oelber.
Thedal Cramm II built a new castle at Sampleben, also stables and storehouses.His son:
Franz Jacob Cramm II, by energy and business ability greatly improved the property and died in 1770, leaving his children a vast inheritance. His son:
Franz Jacob Cramm III was a very talented young man.He published several legal works and died early - the line becoming extinct in 1777.
The property fell to the heirs of Hans Phillip Cramm (Johann Phillip) and then on to August Frederich Cramm, 1700-78, who also inherited property from his grandmother in Asnabruckschen, also became Master of the Chase on the corporate estate of Asnabruck. When August Frederich Cramm died he left 8 children as sharers in the large inheritance.Of his children:
Thedal Wilhelm Cramm received the property in Asnabruck and Legehorn.
Phillip Lebrecht Cramm received the estate of Oelber and later Sampleben.The payments to his five sisters caused trouble and no attention was paid to the family compact of 1582.His son:
Thedal Wilhelm Cramm III.When he died the property fell to the sons of Phillip Lebrecht Cramm, ducal Chamberlain of the House of Brunswick, who was fond of state and ceremony.He never appeared in his carriage with less than four horses, attended by outriders and servants in scarlet livery.His sons divided the property once more:
Albert Hilmar Cramm, the younger, received Oelber, which is now in the possession of his son Edgar Cramm.
Ludwig Thedal August Cramm, the eldest, received Sampleben and a few smaller estates. He had several children, some dying before him. His son:
Burchard left the estate of Sampleben to the children of his sister Von Laningen, with agreement that it should be sold within the year.And so this old estate was also lost to the family Von Cramm
The Burchardian Line
This line descended from Burchard Cramm III, Stadtholder of Marburg (see page 14) 1599. Of his grandsons:
Heinrich Cramm II erected the upper manor at Volkesheim.
Carl, born 1599, fought under Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in the Thirty Years War, later was a member of the Board of Revenue in Brunswick.He laid the foundation of a manor at Lesse and left the estate to his son:
Johann Karl Cramm I, who left twelve children, who contested with each other over the inheritance and weakened the estate financially.Several children died early and their monuments adorn the church at Oelber.The heirs were afterwards united and
Heinrich Cramm, 1647-1729 received Oelber, which fell to his brother:
Gottfried Cramm, who possessed the upper manor at Volkesheim.He died in 1716 with his affairs in bad condition, owing to lawsuits. He was succeeded by his sons:
Carl Heinrich Cramm, 1732, who lefttwo daughters; and one son by Bosine Ernestine Von Reden:
Carl Gottfried Rudolf Cramm, captain in service of Brunswick, died in 1766.When his son:
Carl Ludwig Franz Christian Cramm, died, the line became extinct. His daughter:
Wilhelmina Louise Cramm, married Constant, the French author.
Ernst Gottfried Cramm, second son of Gottfried Cramm, died in 1749 and left one son:
Levin August Christoph Ernst Cramm made a bargain with Theodor Albert Friedrich, owner of the lower manor at Volkesheim, by which he received the upper manor also, and in exchange gave up the office of Hereditary Chamberlain, with all property, tithes, etc., belonging to it, and Levin A. C. Cramm, in 1744, became 1st Hereditary Chamberlain of the Burchardian Line.He died in 1799.His son:
Frederich Carl August Cramm, 17861815, served in several noted regiments as lieutenant, and then organized the regiment of the famous Black Hussars of Brunswick, and fell at Outre Bras, 15 June 1816.His widow survived him with two little sons:
Carl Frederick Hans Cramm, born 1814.He died in 1822.
Wolf Frederick Adolf Cramm, born 13 Aug 1812, was brought up at the court of Brunswick, and later educated at the Academy of knights.He served with the Brunswick Cuirvassers, then was equerry of Brunswick, and later lived upon the estate at Rhode.He was Hereditary Chamberlain and Lord of the King s Bedchamber, and married Hedwig Von Cramm of the house of Oelber.Of his six children four still survive:
Helga , Edith , Aschwin and AdolfCramm.The sons served with distinction in the war of 1870-71 and both received the insignia of the Iron Cross in recognition of their services.
The family Von Lesse
Johann Carl I (see p.20) obtained a charter of nobility, secured the admission of his estate in the registry of knights, and founded the manor of knights at Lesse.
Johann Carl II, his son, died 1727 and left one son who served in a Brunswick regiment and died in 1774. His oldest son:
Johann Carl August Lesse, died unmarried, in 1816.
Christian Frederick Adolf, second son, is the ancestor of the family now living at Burgdorf, besides the next near lines.He left three sons.He sold the manor at Lesse and settled down on the estate at Burgdorf, a mile or so distant, which his son:
Burchard, Duke Ambassador of Brunswick to the legislative assembly owned and occupied in summer.
In 1626 Count Tilly and his bodyguard occupied the castle Oelber for three months and badly injured and defaced it.
Georg Von Cramm, Lieut. Col. of the Emperor Ferdinand is buried at Egar in Bohemia with the Jesuits, where he founded a beautiful college for them in 1623.Ferdinand II raised him to the baronetcy.
(Stat. Partic.Beginnen S. C. M.Ferd. IIp.z. 206 ab Linn-add. Ad. I. II, c. i. x.)
Notes from English-German Records
The family Von Cramm is of the race known as wends, who were a Slavonic tribe forming a sub-division of the northwestern stem of the Slavi.The family Von Cramm belongs to the oldest and most esteemed in the country of Brunswick and always has been related by marriage with many of the renowned noble families of Germany.Several are mentioned authentically A. D. 1161, 1225, in Brunswick (A. M. Hildebrandt, 5 April 1875).The Von Cramms belonged to the Teutonic order of knights originally a confraternity of noblemen formed during the siege of Acre, and formally instituted by Pope Celestin III, 1192.Their ensign was a black cross on a white robe.
Burchard Von Cramm, who died in 167-(son of Franz Jacob Cramm) was commander of the order.
Hans Von Cramm, born 1504 (12th son of Burchard III, p.11) founder of the family in England.Supposed to have arrived there in 1528 and lived in Durham County.Records of the Abbey of Durham show the following entry on the rolls of payment for 1530:
Hans Von Cramm and his six men III marks of gold.
Durham was a county Palatine, the Bishop holding the rights of a Count Palatine from time immemorial,
Lord paramount in capite,
having right to coin money, levy soldiers, commission ships and administer justice.
The bishopric was always most wealthy and maintained an army to resist the constant raid of the Scots.
Hans Von Cramm was a younger son with little hope for preferment at home, and service under such a bishop always gave opportunities for advancement to a young man 24 years of age.He seems to have been a successful soldier, for in 1530 he received a grant of Felling, which his son Burchard willed to his sons in 1609.
It is a curious coincidence that Hans, 12th son of Burchard, founded his family in England and that another Hans (John) 12th son of another Burchard founded the family in America.
Arms of the English House of Von Cramm.
Armsgules; 3 Fleur-de-lis Arg.Pelican with young in nest is an ecclesiastical symbol, indicating that the Von Cramms of Durham were liegemen of the Abbey.
JohnCrammHis tombstone is now built into the side of the entrance of the south porch of the old church at Jarrow.This stone was long since removed from the grave and seems to have been used as a flagstone.The inscription:
Hic Jacet John Cramm qui obiit
nonedecimo die februarii
A Dni MDCLIII nonagesimo quarto
Eius evie ppetur Deus.Amen.
Jarrow is about two miles from South Shields, Durham County, celebrated for its ancient church and monastery of the Benedictines founded 685.(See Bradley & Britten History of Durham).
JohnFirst of the family in America, 12th and youngest child of Burchard Cramm of Felling, Parish of Wently (Wardly?), Durham County, England, born 1607, came first to Exeter, New Hampshire, where he is recorded as being of thecombination . (A small party opposed to Puritans and headed by one Wheelright.)His name appears in the records and his signature on various documents in 1639-40. (5 April 1639.It is recorded that he was a good selectman in Exeter in 1648-9 and removed to Hampton in 1650, where he resided permanently.The record of his death is as follows:
Died 5th March 1681. Good old John Cramm, one just in his generation.
His body lies in the family cemetery of the old homestead at Hampton Falls, New Hampshire. (See Savage s
New Englanders and Provincial Papers relating to New Hampshire, 1623-86, published by the state, edited by Nathaniel Boynton and printed by G. E. Jenks, Concord, New Hampshire.)
Petition of John Cramm and others to King Charles I, 5 April 1639.
Whereas it hath pleased the Lord to move the heart of our dread sovereign Charles, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, to grant license and liberty to sundry of his subjects to plant themselves in the western parts of America, we his loyal subjects, brethren of the church of Exeter, situate and lying upon the river Piscataquacke, with other inhabitants there considering with ourselves the holy will of God and our own necessity that we should not live without wholesome laws and government amongst us of which we are altogether destitute, do in the name of Christ and in the sight of God combine ourselves together to erect and set up amongst us such government as shall be to our own best discerning agreeable to the will of God, professing ourselves subjects to our Sovereign Lord King Charles, according to the liberty of our English colony of the Massachusetts and binding ourselves solemnly by the grace of God and help of Christ and in his name and fear to submit ourselves to such Godly and Christian laws as are established in realm of England to our best knowledge, and to all other such laws which shall upon good grounds be made and enacted amongst us according to God in which we may live quietly and peacefully together in all Godliness and honesty.
Signed on Mon 5 April 1639, by:
George Barlow...James Hall...Thomas Pettle...
Thomas Leavitt....Ralph Hall....Robert Read....Thomas Wardhall
Richard Bullyer....Christopher Kelme....George Rathborne....William Wardhall
William Cole....Christopher Lawson....Henry Roby....William Wentworth
John Cramm....Edmund Littlefield....Edward Rushworth....John Wheelright
Thomas Crawley....Francis Matthews....Robert Seward....Thomas Wilson
Godfrey Dearborn....Richard MorrisRobert Smith....William Winborne
Henry Elkins....Nicholas Needham....Augustine Starr....Darby Field
Philemon Parmet....Samuel Walker
(Records of Exeter, N. H., vol.1, pp7, also No.14 pp331 collection of N. H. Historical Society).
Will of Burchard Cramm of Felling, England, 7 April 1609
To each and every one of the faithful in Christ to whom present letters of testimony may come, John, by Divine permission Bishop of Durham, Health in the Lord that external and undoubted faith be given to these presents we bring and wish to bring to the notice of you all by these presents that the received of the court of Durham by privilege, being examined, we discovered and found in the archives of the same well and faithfully preserved plainly among other things of the same character, that on the 10th day of July 1608, before Roger de Bries, surrogate, the will of the old man Burkard Cram was legally considered, proved and filed.
I, Burchard Cramm, do make and declare this my last will and testament in writing, revoking thereby, both in will and in law, all other former wills and testaments.
First, I command my soul into the hands of Almighty God my maker and redeemer and my bodie to be buried in the church of St. Bede at Jarrow.
Touching my lands, tenements and hereditaments where I have heretofore by my several conveyances for the advancement of my younger sons, Benjamin, Andrew, George and John, assured my houses at Wardley and Felling in the County of Durham to such several uses and interests as in and by the said several conveyances are expressed.My will meaning is that the same assurances shall stand and be effectual to the benefit of my said children according to the true intent and meaning set down in the same writings, and I do by this my last will ratify and confirm and further do will and devise the said houses, lands tenements and hereditaments to my said sons severally and for such the same estates to them particularly and singularly as be mentioned and limited in the said conveyances for my full and plain meaning is that seeing the said Andrew is my first and eldest son by my late wife Barbery that therefore he shall be rewarded as a secondary eldest son and therefore shall have to him and to the heirs made of his body my said houses at Wardley and Felling and all my lands, tenements, etc., not withstanding, my meaning is and so do I hereby, and so do I will and devise that his two younger brethren, George and John, may have and enjoy the same severally during their lives either of them forty pounds of gold by the year and that he, the same Andrew, do see the same paid according to my said conveyance.Also I do give to my said son Benjamin all my goods, chattels, stocks and household stuff whatsoever shall be and remain at Wardley aforesaid at the time of my decease.And I do further give unto the said Benjamin the one half and moitie of all the coals that shall be owing me at the time of my decease.And where I of very fatherly love, and the rather thereby to allure him to his book and study did assure to my son Burkard by my first wife all of my house of Felling with the appurtenances and my newly built house there, since which time I have been urged by great untowardness of my said son(I will not use any more bitter words) to revoke and make void the said assurances, and now here have given the said house to my son Andrew as by the writing thereof appeareth in which revocation I do protest before God I do not know any manner of defect or scruple whatsoever yet waying thatDurum telum est necesitasand thatHomo peruersus sussitatlites , and lastly that desire of such a house inheritance joined with any title will neither regard any fatherly admonition nor brotherly affection, and to the intent also the said Burchard my son may have something to maintain himself and apply his book withal if it please God that he may look back and turn himself to an ordinary course of lifeI do therefore, for these respects give and devise to my said son Burchard these two rent charges of twenty pound apiece which I have going forth severally of the lands of John Hadworth of Harrington to have and to hold to him for and during his natural life.And my will is further that if the said Burchard my son do give himself to the study of the common laws of this realm, whereunto I know he hath an aptness by nature although through evil behaviour and worse company he hath showed himself unapt heretofore, and do become either Reader in Chancery or in Court being called thereunto orderly and performing the same with good liking and opinion of the house so signified under the hands and seals of four Readers of Greyes Inne, then I will and devise the said two rent charges to the said Burchard and to his heirs forever, and where I together with my son Andrew have provided that my daughters, Margery, Clara, Elizabeth and Sophia, be every one of them paid to the sum of 100 pounds of gold for their advancement in marriage at such days and times as the writings thereof are expressed.My meaning is that my daughters shall be duly satisfied with their said portions.And now great good hope and fatherly affiance that I have and trust to find in my son |Andrew towards his brethren and sisters, I do make and ordain him my sole and only executor of this my last will and testament, and I say unto him and by him to the residue of my children, as Solomon said of his son,Fili me teum Deum et Regem , and in my wise beware that you live not above your living and especially in the beginning, for that will bring you to want and necessity both in the middle and ending.
This will is authentic and agrees with the Abbey records.
(Note from p.22)The grant of Felling to Hans Von Cramm by the Dean and Chapter of Durham forgoodlie service at warconsisted of a dwelling calledThe Priorie , with barns, stables, houses, buildings, yards, closes, orchards, gardens, ponds, lands, tenements, meadows, leases, pastures, commons, fishings, and all other profits and commodities, with all rents and services of tenants, all fruits, commodities, pensions, portions, and profits , etc., and was signed and sealed by Roger, Bishop of Durham.
Papers in full were copied from the originals in the hands of John Spearman, English Stationer and collector.
Andrew Cram (see will of Burchard) lived at DentsHole, Northumberland, England (on the north side of the river, close by Felling) where he owned valuable fisheries, and also at Bill Quay on the south side of the river in County Durham and not far from Wardley, which was willed him by his father Burchard.He also owned a Manor House called Holly Hall, at Bill Quay.The will of Andrew of DentsHole is dated 1625, and his property was given to his sons, Andrew, George and Archibald.He is buried in the old churchyard of St. Bede at Jarrow and Surtees in his history of Durham, volume 2, p. 71, gives the inscription on his stoneviz.,This is the burial place of Andrew Cram. He departed to the mercy of God 24 April 1658.
George William Cram, a lawyer and judge at Newcastle upon Tyne, living in Ovingham Co., Northumberland, and now (1876) entering his 76th year.This gentleman has furnished most of the information relating to the English branch.
In a letter to Daniel H. Cram, 15 February 1875, he says:I believe I am the only survivor of the family now living.To perpetuate the name I have erected my own tombstone in Ovingham graveyard, and to the disgust of a ritualistic vicar I have inscribed on it:The burial place of George William Cram, the last of a family of that name who for generations were Free Burgesses of Newcastle upon Tyne.
George, b. 1605, buried inthe old churchyard of St. Bede at Jarrow.Inscription onthe stone isPray for the soul of George Cramm 15th February 1658
AndrewBuried at St. Bede.Inscription reads:Pray for the soul of Andrew Kram, 1670.
Georgeb, 1565.In the earliest account of a levy of seamen in the time of the Armada, 1588, this George C. was on the list calledKeelmen.(Note the different spelling of the name on three tombstones at St. Bede, Andrew Cram 1658, George Cramm 1658, Andrew Kram 1670.)(There is some discrepency here for there are not two Andrew Crams mentioned in the Note.There are two Georges, so maybe one of them was spelled with K
Lease of the Fish Pools by John Cramm, 30 January 1634, Co. Durham, England
(See copy of this elsewhere in my records.)A true copy from the original in possession of Robert Cram of Holly Hall. Edward Sundwiche, stationer.
In the name of God, Amen.In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1634, on the 2nd day of September, New Style, which is the 23rd of August, English style, I Notary and Registrar Public undersigned, have signed as required the present instrument with my own individual signature.Ralph Henderson, Notary Public. (Translated and abbreviated.)
This John Cramm, although by his lease he contemplated leaving England in 1634, did not arrive in America, at least nothing is known of him until he appeared in Exeter, New Hampshire in 1639.Although he is said to have emigrated to Boston in 1635 no substantial proof is given to support the statement.
Note:By later reports it is known that John Cram was assigned 16 acres of land at Muddy River (now Brookline), outside Boston in 1635.
Some Cram s who paid taxes at Hampton Falls, America
Benjamin Cram Jun. Paid0 120 taxes in 1709 at Hampton Falls, New Hampshire.
John Cram Sen.Paid0 185in taxes in Hampton Falls, in 1709.
Benjamin Cram Sen. Paid0 101in taxes in Hampton Falls, in 1709.
John Cram Jun.Paid064in taxes in Hampton Falls, in 1709.
The names of Jonathan, Joel and Nehemiah are on the list of Freeholders of Hampton Falls, Province of New Hampshire, dated 4 December 1769.