Here is the bible information again with more things added.I stopped at 4 generations to exlude people who are still living and may not want their names posted.:)
Descendants of William Devine
Generation No. 1
1.WILLIAM1 DEVINE was born in Ireland.He married KATHERINE MAXWELL.She was born in Ireland.
Notes for WILLIAM DEVINE:
Below is ships registry which I believe is our William Devine leaving the UK for America:
Note on Genforum Message Board by Tom Devine:
The town of Devine, Texas is named for this Thomas Jefferson Devine and there is a bit written about it (but I can not remember where). It lies near to San Antonio I believe and from what I remember, Thomas was born in Nova Scotia and had a brother (James?) who left the South at the outbreak of the civil war. Their father, I believe, came from Wexford and was chased out for having taken part in the Uprising of 1798. Recall that Vinegar Hill (a focal point of that uprising) lies in Wexford. I don't recall that the source I'm citing gives any more info than that and in all fairness, it has been a few years since I read it, though I'm fairly confident that this is accurate. Also, keep looking as this information came out of something that is in print. Check libraries that have extensive local history collections for Texas and good luck.
Children of WILLIAM DEVINE and KATHERINE MAXWELL are:
2. i. THOMAS JEFFERSON2 DEVINE, b. February 28, 1812, Halifax, Nova Scotia; d. March 16, 1902, San Antonio, TX.
ii. GREGORY P. DEVINE, b. 1823; d. August 08, 1903, San Antonio, TX.
Notes for GREGORY P. DEVINE:
Gregory P. Devine, for 57 years a resident of San Antonio, died at the advanced age of 80 years at the home of W. S. Smith 724 South Flores street, early Saturday morning.Deceased was unmarried.
The funeral will take place at 9 o'clock this morning from Mr. Smiths residence, the following gentlemen serving as pallbearers: Capt. Morrill Poor, Capt. Sam Maverick, W. W. Boone, Jay Minter, Capt John Bradley and W. B. McMillan, and John McElroy.
Mr. Devine was the brother of the late Judge Thomas J. Devine and came to Texas in 1846.He became identified with the mercantile business of Joseph H. and Daniel Devine, also his brothers, then engaged in a large wholesale trade with Mexico, where he often carried and sold goods, bringing back the proceeds amounting to thousands of dollars overland in an ambulance.After the death of Jospeh H. Devine, he retired form active business and has been anttending only to his private affairs.
Mr. Devine was learned and took a deep interest in public affairs, although not actively identified with politics.He was a constant reader and was well informed upon all general topics.He was an admirier of the poets and was sometimes given to writing poetry himself, which, those who are judges, consider worthy literary productions.
iii. JOSEPH H. DEVINE.
iv. DANIEL DEVINE.
Generation No. 2
2.THOMAS JEFFERSON2 DEVINE (WILLIAM1) was born February 28, 1812 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and died March 16, 1902 in San Antonio, TX.He married HELENE ANN ELDER October 31, 1844 in San Antonio, TX, daughter of THOMAS ELDER and CAROLINE CLARK.She was born September 08, 1820 in Washington Co., KY, and died January 19, 1881.
Notes for THOMAS JEFFERSON DEVINE:
DEVINE, THOMAS JEFFERSON (1820-1890). Thomas Jefferson Devine, eminent Texas jurist and Confederate diplomat, son of Irish emigrants William and Katherine (Maxwell) Devine, was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on February 28, 1820. He worked for several firms in New York City and at age fifteen clerked for a clothing merchant in Tallahassee, Florida. He read law in Woodville, Mississippi, in 1838, then spent three years studying law at Transylvania University in Kentucky. After receiving his degree and license to practice law, Devine went to La Grange, Texas. He married Helen Elder there on October 31, 1844, and they moved to San Antonio the same year. They were the parents of several children, five of whom, three sons and two daughters, survived Devine.
Devine was appointed San Antonio city attorney and served until 1851, when he was elected district judge, a post he held for ten years. He was a member of the Secession Convention in 1861 and was appointed a member of the Committee of Public Safety that supervised the surrender of federal troops, supplies, and property in Texas (see COMMITTEES OF PUBLIC SAFETY). He was appointed judge of the Confederate Western District of Texas. In 1864 Judge Devine was appointed by Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith to go to Mexico to settle a dispute involving shipment of cotton from the Confederacy, a mission he accomplished successfully, thereby gaining fame as a diplomat.
At the close of the Civil War Devine returned to Mexico in order to avoid taking the oath of allegiance to the federal government and spent several months there. Upon his return to San Antonio he was arrested by federal officers and imprisoned in Fort Jackson Barracks, New Orleans. He suffered from pneumonia and was released on parole in January 1866 upon his promise that he would not leave the United States.
He was twice indicted for high treason and, with Jefferson Davis and Clement Clay, was one of the only three persons charged with treason during the war. He was pardoned without a trial, however, and his citizenship was restored on June 17, 1867.
He was appointed associate justice of the Texas Supreme Court in 1874 but resigned, partly because his wife was seriously ill, before the end of his term. He returned to the private practice of law. In his legal career he achieved a high reputation for intelligence and honesty. At the Texas Democratic convention of 1878, Devine was urged to permit his name to be placed in nomination for governor but declined. In 1881-82 he was a member of the board of regents of the proposed University of Texas.
Judge Devine died at his home in San Antonio on March 16, 1890. Funeral services were held at Saint Mary's Catholic Church, with interment in San Fernando Cemetery Number 1. The town of Devine was named in his honor.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sidney S. Johnson, Texans Who Wore the Gray (Tyler, Texas, 1907). Mary Owen Meredith, The Life and Works of Thomas Jefferson Devine (M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1930). Jon L. Wakelyn, Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1977). San Antonio Semi-Weekly Express, March 19, 1890.
Source: Yancey L. Russell"DEVINE, THOMAS JEFFERSON." The Handbook of Texas Online. [Accessed Sat Mar 16 19:53:32 US/Central 2002 ].
Newspaper article in family bible reads as follows;
San Antonio TX, March 17.One of the most imposing funeral processions ever seen in this city was that which this evening followed the remains of the late Thomas J. Devine to their final resting place in the Catholic cemetery, where the distingushed jurist reposed by the side of his wife.The procession was nearly a mile and a half long and there was almost a suspension of business during it's passage alont the streets.
The following is a list of noted men who attended as honorary pall bearers:Hon. John E. Ireland of Seguin, Judge L. N. Walthal, Judge N. O. Green, Colonel John A. Green, Colonel Columbus Upson, Hon. J. H. French, John Withers, John Twohig, H. B. Adams and General H. P. Bee.
The Casket containing the body was almost buried beneath the mass of floral offerings, and was borne to the hearse by six of the junior members of the bar.Both the district courts, the probate and lower courts adjourned out of respect to his memory.
A meeting of the bar was held to take appropriate action upon his death.It was the most largely attended bar meeting ever held in this city.The venerable Judge L. N. Walthall presided, and on motion of Attorney-general J. H. McLeary the following committee was appointed to draft resolutions: J. H. Mcleary, N. O. Green, H. P. Drought, L. G. Denman, Ed dwyer, E. R. Lane and A. J. Evans.The committee will meet on Saturday morning next.
The bar then adopted a resolution by a unanimous vote that the members attend the funeral in a body.
Ex Governor Roberts telegraphed his condolences to the family, but was unable to attend.
Notes for HELENE ANN ELDER:
It is with profound sorrow that The Times is called upon to announce the demise of Mrs. Helen Ann Devine, consort of Judge T. J. Devine.Mrs Devine had been an invalid for several years, and for some the time past has been very ill, and her death was not unexpected.
Mrs. Devine was greatly beloved by a large circle of friends, whose sorrow will be deep and lasting.A good womanhad crossed over the river of death to join the angel band, but the sorrow of the surviving partner of her life is poignant as he realizes that the familiar and loved form will soon pass from his sight forever in this life- May she rest in peace.
The bereaved husband, family and friends have the sincere sympathy of The Times and the entire community, in this their hour of trouble.
Children of THOMAS DEVINE and HELENE ELDER are:
i. DANIEL3 DEVINE.
ii. ISABELLE DEVINE.
3. iii. THOMAS NETTERVILLE DEVINE, b. November 24, 1854, San Antonio, TX.
4. iv. JOSEPH PHILLIP SR. DEVINE, b. July 17, 1856, San Antonio, TX; d. May 28, 1902, San Antonio, TX.
5. v. CATHERINE FLORENCE DEVINE, b. February 02, 1858, San Antonio, TX; d. December 10, 1939.
6. vi. HELEN ALICE DEVINE, b. March 31, 1861.
7. vii. ALBERT ELDER DEVINE, b. March 28, 1862, San Antonio, TX; d. December 24, 1935.
Generation No. 3
3.THOMAS NETTERVILLE3 DEVINE (THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born November 24, 1854 in San Antonio, TX.He married MARY RINGGOLD February 28, 1878.
Children of THOMAS DEVINE and MARY RINGGOLD are:
i. HELEN GARDINER4 DEVINE, b. January 27, 1879.
ii. THOMAS RINGGOLD DEVINE, b. October 27, 1880.
iii. FLORENCE DEVINE, b. May 06, 1882; d. October 29, 1905.
Notes for FLORENCE DEVINE:
Miss Florence Devine, a teacher in the Marshall street school, died yesterday afternoon at 1 o'clock at the Santa Rosa infirmary of appendicitis.She had been an inmate of the hospital for ten days.
Mis Devine was 23 years old and lived with her father, T. N. Devine, at 129 Howard street.She was beloved by all who knew her and was a successful and popular teacher.She attended the high school in this city and was a graduate of the state university.She had a host of friends and was a leader in social circles.
She is survived by her parents, two sisters, Kitty and Helen, and a brother, Thomas Devine.
The funeral will take place this afternoon at 3:30 from St. Mark's church.Rev. CH Remington will conduct the services.The interment will take place in the family burial plot in City Cemetery #1.
iv. KATE DEVINE, b. June 17, 1885; d. February 16, 1929.
4.JOSEPH PHILLIP SR.3 DEVINE (THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born July 17, 1856 in San Antonio, TX, and died May 28, 1902 in San Antonio, TX.He married OLIVE ANN FRENCH September 02, 1879, daughter of JAMES FRENCH and SARAH WEBB.She was born February 25, 1860 in San Antonio, TX, and died January 26, 1936 in San Antonio, TX.
Notes for JOSEPH PHILLIP SR. DEVINE:
City Assessor Joseph P. Devine died at 6 o'clock Wednesday morning at his late residence, 719 Howard Street.Brights Disease, from which Mr. Devine had been suffering intensly for eight weeks, confining him to his bed during that period, was the cause of his death.The members of the family and immediate relatives were present when death came.
The funeral services will be held this afternoon at 4:30 o'clock and will be conducted in the family home.The Rev. A. G. Jones of the First Presbyterian church will conduct the services and will be assisted by Rev. Robert Hall of the Westminster Presbyterian church.Interment will take place in Cemetery No. 1.
The death of Mr. Devine, although not a surprise, for his serious illness was known to his large following of friends, came as a shock nevertheless.He was popular and well known, because of his life-long residence in this city.When his death was announced, the Assessor's office in the city was immediately closed, and crepe was suspended from the door of the main entrance into the office.The office will remain closed today, as well as all of the other city offices after 3 o'clock in the afternoon.
Mayor Hicks issued an order to the head of each department to close promptly at that hour, and all of the city officials, together with the members of the City Council, were requested to attend the funeral in a body.
The Rev. Junius B. French, brother of Mrs. Devine, arrived in the city Wednesday evening from Fort Worth, where he is a pastor of the Broadway Presbyterian church.
The death of Mr. Devine became known to his many freinds early in the day and many appeared at the family residence to offer condolence and sympathy to the bereaved widow.Many floral pieces were sent to the home in the afternoon which practically covered the casket in which the remains reposed.Because of the large acquaintance Mr. Devine emjoyed the funeral service will be a public one, and the many friends he had during life are invited to attend.
During his private life Mr. Devine was highly respected as a citizen, and when he entered public life he enjoyed the thorough confidence of the people of this city.He was a native of San Antonio, having been born in this city July 17, 1856.With the exception of a few years during which he conducted a large ranch in this county, his entire life was spent in San Antonio.
Mr. Devine received his education in the Notre Dame University, Indiana.Immediately after completing his studies he returned to this city.His father the late Thomas J. Devine, was a judge of the Supreme Court of Texas.
In 1879 Mr. Devine was married to Miss Olive A. French, daughter of Hon. J. H. French, who served several terms in this city as Mayor.Seven children blessed the happy couple.six of whom, Sarah, Helen O., Joseph, Thomas, William and Franklin survive him..Two brothers and two sisters also survive Mr. Devine, T. N. Devine, A. E. Devine and Mrs. W. S. Smith and Mrs. Kate May.
Soon after abandoning his ranch interests, which was in 1890, Mr. Devine entered public life.He was elected alderman and served one term during Mayor Elmendorf's administration.Several years later he was elected to the office of Assessor and with general satisfaction to the city he was serving his second term.
Eight weeks ago Mr. Devine, because of a severe attack of Brights disease, from which he was a sufferer for many years, was forced to abandon his work in the Assessor's office.His illness became worse as time wore on, and he suffered intensely until death came to his relief.
Children of JOSEPH DEVINE and OLIVE FRENCH are:
8. i. SARAH LORINELLA4 DEVINE, b. June 09, 1880, San Antonio, TX; d. August 10, 1959, Corpus Christi, Nueces Co., TX.
9. ii. JOSEPH PHILLIP JR. DEVINE, b. October 29, 1881, San Antonio, TX; d. March 04, 1936.
iii. HELEN OLIVE DEVINE, b. November 30, 1882; d. April 18, 1920, Los Angeles, CA.
iv. JAMES HENRY DEVINE, b. June 24, 1884; d. May 19, 1886, San Antonio, TX.
10. v. THOMAS JEFFERSON DEVINE, b. February 26, 1887, San Antonio, TX; d. December 29, 1947.
11. vi. WILLIAM WEBB DEVINE, b. March 15, 1890, San Antonio, TX; d. February 28, 1948.
12. vii. FRANKLIN FRENCH DEVINE, b. October 10, 1892, San Antonio, TX; d. May 02, 1954.
5.CATHERINE FLORENCE3 DEVINE (THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born February 02, 1858 in San Antonio, TX, and died December 10, 1939.She married THOMAS ELDER October 18, 1884.
Child of CATHERINE DEVINE and THOMAS ELDER is:
i. HELEN LAVINIA4 ELDER.
6.HELEN ALICE3 DEVINE (THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born March 31, 1861.She married IVAN S. SMITH January 18, 1881.
Children of HELEN DEVINE and IVAN SMITH are:
i. HELEN ANN ELDER4 SMITH, b. March 12, 1882; d. October 10, 1918.
ii. THOMAS DEVINE SMITH, b. December 30, 1883; d. October 1904.
iii. WILLIAM SPENCER SMITH, b. September 09, 1886; d. May 1933.
iv. LARKIN SMITH, b. January 17, 1888.
v. GREGORY DANIEL SMITH, b. January 24, 1889.
vi. GEORGE MALVERN SMITH, b. May 30, 1891.
vii. LUCILLE SMITH, b. August 15, 1895.
7.ALBERT ELDER3 DEVINE (THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born March 28, 1862 in San Antonio, TX, and died December 24, 1935.He married BESSIE WEIR February 17, 1890.
Notes for ALBERT ELDER DEVINE:
Major Albert Elder Devine Sr., veteran of two wars and son of a former justice of the Texas supreme court, died at 2pm Monday at his residence, 1820 Travis street.He was 73.
Born in San Antonio, the son of Thomas J. Devine, former supreme court justice, Major Devine served as a captain in the Spanish-American war.In the World War he received the rank of major.
Survivors include his wife, Mrs. Bessie Devine of Houston; two sisters, Mrs. Helen Devine Smith and Mrs. Kate Devine May, and numerous nieces and nephews.
Child of ALBERT DEVINE and BESSIE WEIR is:
i. ALBERT ELDER JR.4 DEVINE, b. December 20, 1890; d. June 18, 1926.
Generation No. 4
8.SARAH LORINELLA4 DEVINE (JOSEPH PHILLIP SR.3, THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born June 09, 1880 in San Antonio, TX, and died August 10, 1959 in Corpus Christi, Nueces Co., TX.She married JAMES FRANCIS CLARKSON December 30, 1903 in San Antonio, Texas, son of ROBERT CLARKSON and ELIZABETH DENTON.He was born November 17, 1880 in Refugio, Refugio Co., TX, and died September 24, 1932 in Duval Co., TX.
Notes for JAMES FRANCIS CLARKSON:
When James and Sarah were to be wed, James got sick and could not make it to the wedding.The wedding was postponed, and when he tried to get more time off from his job as an attorney for the railroad to make a new date, they refused to give him the time.When he let Sarah know that, she very haughtily let him know that the wedding would proceed as scheduled and that if he were not there as a groom, his rival, Mr. Pitcher, would be.He quit his job and became her husband.
San Antonio City Cemetery #1, Section C
Plot 9-S. L. FRENCH
1. Olive French DEVINE, Feb 25, 1860, Jan 26, 1936
2. Helen Olive, dau of J. P. and O. F. DEVINE, Nov 30, 1882, April 18, 1920
3. Joseph P. DEVINE, Oct 29, 1881, Mar 4, 1936
4. Lamar French DEVINE, beloved son of William Webb DEVINE, and Beline Lamar DEVINE, July 6, 1919, Apr 10, 1946
5. Charles Clinton YATES, Jan 29, 1905, Mar 13, 1930
6. Sarah L. FRENCH, Oct 6, 1836, Sept 7, 1915
7. James Henry FRENCH, born in Fauquier Co., Virginia, Mar 26, 1835, died in San Antonio, Texas, Sept 6, 1893
8. Lorrie, little daughter of J. F. and S. L. CLARKSON, Nov 14, 1904, Mar 15, 1914
9. Baby Brother, infant son of J. F. and S. L. CLARKSON, June 4, 1914
10. Sarah Angier DEVINE, 1925-1925
11. Thomas J. DEVINE, Texas Captain, U. S. Army Ret., World War I and II, SS-PH, Feb 26, 1887, Dec 29, 1947
12. CLARKSON: James Francis, Nov 17, 1880, Sept 23, 1932; Sarah Lorinilla, nee DEVINE, June 9, 1880, Aug 10, 1959.
13. William Webb DEVINE, 1890-1948
Children of SARAH DEVINE and JAMES CLARKSON are:
i. SARAH LORRIE5 CLARKSON, b. November 14, 1904; d. March 15, 1914.
ii. OLIVE FRENCH CLARKSON, b. October 30, 1906; d. July 13, 1966, New Orleans, LA; m. JAMES OSWALD WILLIAMS, June 12, 1929, San Diego, TX; d. May 10, 1949, Rockport, TX.
iii. HELEN FRANCES CLARKSON, b. October 23, 1911, San Antonio, TX; d. October 14, 1985, San Antonio, TX; m. ROBERT TUNSTALL BOOTH, January 31, 1942; b. April 27, 1898, Kansas City, KS; d. April 01, 1986, San Antonio, TX.
iv. JAMES FRANCES CLARKSON, b. June 04, 1914; d. June 04, 1914.
v. PALMER BLAIR CLARKSON, b. October 31, 1916; d. December 08, 1972, Barinas, Estadas Barinas, Venezula; m. ADELE CHESSER, February 19, 1933.
9.JOSEPH PHILLIP JR.4 DEVINE (JOSEPH PHILLIP SR.3, THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born October 29, 1881 in San Antonio, TX, and died March 04, 1936.He married (1) BELL THROOP March 08, 1905 in San Antonio, Texas.He married (2) BESSE A. FITZGIBBONS January 17, 1915.
Notes for JOSEPH PHILLIP JR. DEVINE:
Insurance Man, J.P. Devine, Dies:
Funeral Set for Grandson of Mayor French, Judge Devine:
Funeral services for Joseph P. Devine, prominent San Antonio insurance man, who died in the Santa Rosa Hospital Wednesday morning, will be held in the First Presbyterian Church Thursday afternoon, with Rev. P. B. Hill officiating.
He was the grandson of the San Antonio lawyer and jurist, Judge Thomas J. Devine, and of Mayor James H. French.
Devine was the general agent in San Antonio for the Union Central Life Insurance Company from 1916 to 1930, when he was promoted to general manager of the home office agency in Cincinnati, Ohio, which position he held until his death.
Devine was born in San Antonio 10/29/1881, the son of Joseph Phillip and Olive Ann French Devine.Reared and educated in San Antonio, he early became interested in insurance.In 1914 he became a solicitor for the Union Central Life Insurance Company of Cincinnati, and in 1916was appointed acting general agent and became general agent for Southwest Texas.
Devine was a member of the First Presbyterian Church, San Antonio Casino Club, and the BPO Elks.On January 17, 1915 he married Miss Besse A. Fitzgibbon of Cleveland.
Surviving are widow, Mrs. Besse A. Devine; two sons Joseph P. Jr., and Thomas Franklin Devine; daughter, Helen Olive Devine, now of Cincinnati; three brothers, W. W. and Thomas J. Devine, San Antonio, and Franklin F. Devine, Tampico Mexico, and sister Mrs. J. F. Clarkson, San Diego.
The body will lie in state at the First Presbyterian Chruvh from noon until 3pm.Pallbearers will be Judge Robert Terrell, Claude Newton, Marshall T. Hearne Jr., Sam C. Bennett, Fay W. Clubb, Charles W. Fowler Jr.
Children of JOSEPH DEVINE and BELL THROOP are:
i. OLIVE KENNER5 DEVINE, b. February 20, 1906; d. March 1945.
ii. VIRGINIA DEVINE, b. January 03, 1908.
Children of JOSEPH DEVINE and BESSE FITZGIBBONS are:
iii. JR. JOSEPH PHILLIP III5 DEVINE, b. March 29, 1917; d. March 15, 1967; m. ELIZABETH MAESCHER, June 15, 1938, Cincinnati, OH; b. February 27, 1917; d. February 27, 1991.
iv. THOMAS FRANKLIN DEVINE, b. September 08, 1921; d. Aft. 1880; m. KATHERINE KING, January 04, 1945, Duluth.
v. HELEN OLIVE DEVINE, b. October 02, 1931.
10.THOMAS JEFFERSON4 DEVINE (JOSEPH PHILLIP SR.3, THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born February 26, 1887 in San Antonio, TX, and died December 29, 1947.He married HELEN FRANCES MCKIBBIN September 27, 1924 in St. Paul, MN.
Notes for THOMAS JEFFERSON DEVINE:
Texas Captain, U. S. Army Ret., World War I and II, SS-PH
Children of THOMAS DEVINE and HELEN MCKIBBIN are:
i. SARAH ANGIER5 DEVINE, b. November 15, 1925; d. 1925.
ii. THOMAS JEFFERSON DEVINE, b. August 23, 1927.
11.WILLIAM WEBB4 DEVINE (JOSEPH PHILLIP SR.3, THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born March 15, 1890 in San Antonio, TX, and died February 28, 1948.He married ISABEL LAMAR June 11, 1916 in Tampico, Mexico.
Children of WILLIAM DEVINE and ISABEL LAMAR are:
i. WILLIAM WEBB5 DEVINE, b. June 01, 1917; m. DOROTHY RAY WURZBACH, July 12, 1947.
ii. LAMAR FRENCH DEVINE, b. July 06, 1919; d. April 10, 1946.
iii. MARY FRANCES DEVINE, b. July 03, 1921; m. JASON BERRY, March 25, 1948.
iv. LANIER HENRY DEVINE, b. August 01, 1923.
12.FRANKLIN FRENCH4 DEVINE (JOSEPH PHILLIP SR.3, THOMAS JEFFERSON2, WILLIAM1) was born October 10, 1892 in San Antonio, TX, and died May 02, 1954.He married ELIZABETH JOHNSTON MASTERSON November 14, 1927 in Houston, TX.
Children of FRANKLIN DEVINE and ELIZABETH MASTERSON are:
i. FRANKLIN FRENCH5 DEVINE, b. September 14, 1928.
ii. DAVID JOHNSTON DEVINE, b. February 05, 1931.
iii. PATRICIA DEVINE, b. October 16, 1933.