I am a Dodson/Dotson descendant also.I find my family on the census records spelled both ways.
Since my curiosity got me going on your "brain teaser" I kept digging.
1850 District 11 Grainger, TN Census Dodson, Abner 42 b. TN Eliza 3? b. ? John 14 b. TN Phebe A 13 b. TN Margaret 10 b. TN *Samuel 8 b. TN Abner C 5 b. TN Isaac 3 b. TN Elizabeth 1 b. TN
I find Abner C 34 B. TN on the 1880 Grant Dallas MO census also.
I find your Rebecca Rodelander on the 1880 Grant, Dallas,MO this way Roadlander, Cas 50 (1830) TN farmer father NC mother TN Sarah A 44 IN James A 19 MO William C 17 MO Mary A 13 MO Rebecca 7 MO Crabtree, L???? (unreadable) son-in-law 21 farmer IL Nancy J 22 MO
1870 Grant, Dallas, MO Roadlander, Calaway 39 TN Sarah 38 IN Martha E 13 MO Nancy 11 MO James 9 MO William 6 MO Mary A 3 Sarah E 7/12
1860 Miller, Dallas, MO Roadlander, Calaway 30, TN Sarah 29 IN Martha E 4 MO Nancy 2 MO
Also on the 1880 Grant, Dallas, MO census in order found
Roadlander, John 69 (1811) NC farmer father NC mother SC Elizabeth wife 75
Roadlander, John P 3? Melvina 25 Alzaro 8 Robert 6
Crabtree, Marthahead Ophela 18 John 12 May Mar?? 6 Lay???? male 3 Nancy Thought that Martha might be the mother of ? Crabtree 21 b. IL who married Nancy J Roadlander
Roadlander, Cas info above
On the list I gave prior for the Dodson's Samuel W > Abner > Joel > Samuel > Samuel > Johnif you go to ancestry. com you will be able to type in Abner and trace him through the above and further To Charles Dodson SR b. c 1649 and Ann.
If you don't have access to the census info and there is something that I can look up for you let me know.