The Dowlings in the 1790 Cheraws Census of South Carolina are most likely Robert Dowling the father and his children.
1790 South Carolina Federal Census
Dowling Robert - SC Cheraw Dist. father of James C., John, Elizabeth, Sarah, Mary Ann & Jane
Dowling James - SC Cheraw Dist. husband of Mary Elizabeth “Polly” Boutwell
Dowling John - SC Cheraw Dist. husband of Nancy Boutwell
Boutwell S(L)aoni - SC Cheraw Dist. father of Stephen, Burton, William, John, Mary Elizabeth “Polly” and Nancy
Stokes John - SC Cheraw Dist.
Boutwell Burton - SC Orangeburg Dist.
Boutwell John - SC Orangeburg Dist.
The Boutwell / Dowling connection is played out several different ways and this would appear to be the logical explanation.This is also where we have major discussions over the placement of Lioney [Saoni] Laoni Boutwell within this family tree.