no, I don't think that's possible. In Québec, women's legal name is their maiden name. As Pierre and Marie were married in Québec, I would not see how she may have used another name than Cadorette.
There is still another possibility: Philome is and was a relatively rare name. So, in writing down Philomème's name in an act, the officiant may have made a mistake, Philomène Cadorette becoming Philomène Leclerc.
From your answer, must I understand that, like me, you don't have a copy of an original act? I have sent an email this morning to my friend Micheline Ducharme, great-grand-daughter of Pierre and Marie Cadorette, to check if they have such an piece that could give us the truth.
I must say here that Ducharme are mainly from the Lansaudière area. It seems that Pierre was not in good terms with his family, so he left for anoter part of Québec.