Descendants of Toussaint Toupin, Sieur DuSault
Compiled by Janet Manseau Donaldson
Use as a guide
Generation No. 1
1.Toussaint1 Toupin, Sieur DuSault was born about 1616 in France, and died 10 Aug 1676 in Château Richer, Montmorency,QC.He married (1) Marie-Marguerite Boucher 25 Dec 1645 in Unknown (presumed Québec City), QC (ct Audouart), daughter of Gaspard Boucher and Nicole Lemaire/Lemere.She was born 28 Jul 1631 in Notre Dame ofMortagne, Perche, France, and died Bef. 03 Jun 1669 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.He married (2) Marie Bourdon 03 Jun 1669 in Québec City, QC, daughter of Louis Bourdon and Madeleine Prunier.She was born 05 Mar 1634 in St. Cande le Viel, Rouen, Normandie, France, and died about 15 Apr 1705 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.
Notes for Toussaint Toupin, Sieur DuSault:
This Pioneer was a ship's captain; he was born about 1616, of unknown origin in France. Toussaint Toupin is noted at Sillery on 25 April 1639 (at age 23), when he became the godfather of an Iroquois.
In 1643, he lived in Trois Rivières, close to the family of Gaspard Boucher, his future father-in-law, the future governor and sieur of Boucherville.Two years later on Christmas Day 1645, in Québec City, Toussaint Toupin married 14 year old Marguerite Boucher, born in St-Jean de Mortagne, July 28, 1631.
Since 1648, Toussaint Toupin settled at the west of the river called "Sault à la Puce", on the coast of Beauport.He had a house close to a place called La Longue Pointe, current territory of Château Richer.At this point in time he took on the dit name "Dusault" (of Sault)".This nickname started because of the name of the river where he lived.He became "Sieur of Sault".Sieur (Lord) was a title like "Mr."given to men of importance or landlords.
In 1658, he rented out his concession and purchased a site near the coast of Diamants, (translates to Diamonds), at the foot of the coast of la Montagne (the Mountain), Québec.He also purchased a boat to serve Montréal, Trois Rivières and Québec City.
This settler known as Dusault, a master of boats, is listed in the Québec City 1666 census with his wife and 4 children.He was 50 years old and his wife Marguerite Boucher was 32 years old, remaining at the low town of Québec City.
He also become sénéchal (an official) or the judge provost of the seigniory of Lauzon, to replaceCharles Sevestre .
His first wife Marguerite Boucher died about 1668, after having given six children to the Colony.
On Monday July 3, 1669, Toussaint's son Jean-Baptiste Toupin married Marie Gloria (daughter of Marie Bourdon) in a double wedding, with his father Toussaint Toupin who married his second wife, Marie Bourdon (Jean's mother in law), widow of Jean Gloria, and mother of six children.
Toussaint Toupin and his son Jean received from the intendant Talon, on November 30, 1672, the stronghold or seigniory of Bélair, known as La Pointe aux Écureuils (Squirrels). Jean becomes the founder of the Écureuils, municipality located at 45 kilometers of Québec City.
On August 10, 1676, Toussaint Toupin-dit-Belair, Sieur DuSault, died and was buried the following day on Sunday August 11, 1676, at Château-Richer.His second wife Marie Gloria married Jean Charet on November 11, 1680, at the Castle-Richer.This was her third wedding.This Pioneer was a ship's captain, he was born about 1616, of unknown origin in France. Toussaint Toupin is noted at Sillery on 25 April 1639 (at age 23), when he became the godfather of an Iroquois.
Notes for Touissant Toupin:
Known as Sieur Dussault was a bourgeois, ships master, Concession the Seigneury de la Pointe aux Ecureuils with son Jean 03-11-1672
SOURCE: One Hundred French Canadian Families, Phillip Moore, 1994 p207/890
Touissant Toupin probably came from Brittany during the 1638 navigation season. His name first appears in...1639, for a baptism in Sillery. Later that year he attended an auction of personal affects of the recently deceased Guillaume Hebert...[he] bought a pair of boots.
In about 1643 he made his home at Trois-Rivières. In 1645 Toupin contracted to marry Gaspard's[Boucher] daughter Marguerite...[He] made his living transporting people up and down the water ways. Originally he used a long boat propelled by oars and sails. The first record of his doing this was in July 1646 when he brought a Jesuit
priest to Trois-Rivières. He travelled widely about the colony...so he became well known.
...The 1666 census states he was a master of barks, plural. A bark was a vessel displacing 18-20 tons and was worth 1300 livres. This was dangerous work...As land was the basis of wealth in those days he always tried to have his share. In 1647
Touissant and Marguerite sold their home in Trois-Rivières. They moved to the safety of Québec where their first son was born in 1647. In 1648 Olivier Tardif ceded Touissant a large tract of land. 7.2 arpents frontage and 1.5 leagues deep. it was west of the river Sault a la Puce. Toupin took his dit name De Sault from this location...LeSieur Dusault purchased a 40 x 40 foot lot in the lower city of Québec, on rue Sault au Matelot in 1655. He built a two story stone house with two fireplaces, a cellar, attic, shed, oven, forge and court. Then he rented his farm and devoted his efforts to his maritime business. He had established his permanent home. In 1657 he purchased a pew
in Notre Dame of Québec.
Seigneur Jean de Lauson's son did Toupin a favor in 1660. He granted him a tract of land that he sold 11 days later for a profit. In 1662 the Governor gave him land behind the Kings warehouses.
Toupin's loyal wife, the mother of six children died in 1668. The inventory of their possessions shows that they were living well. She even had two mirrors. He had numerous firearms, including two marine mortars that could shot cannons or stones...
[He] then married Marie Bourdon, the widow of Notary Jean Gloria. It was a double wedding. His son Jean married the widow's daughter Marie Gloria.
From 1670-1672 the Intendant Talon awarded Seigneuries. He gave Toussaint Toupin and his son Jean Toupin the seigneury Belair, also called La-Pointe-aux- Ecureuils. or Squirrel Point in English. It was a half league frontage on the river and was a league deep.
In failing health he rented his home in Québec and moved to Chateau Richer in 1676. There Touissant Toupin, Sieur Dusault, de Belair et Duclos, Seigneur des Ecureuils died 10 Aug 1676.
SOURCE: Our French-Canadian Ancestors, Vol 15, Translated by Thomas J LaForest from " Nos Ancestres" p.194-5
...The inventory of the property of Toussaint Toupin and MArguerite Boucher was begun on 14 December 1669 in order to be finished on the last day of January 1670. The Toupins did not live in great luxury, but at Québec they had all that was necessary to meet their material needs. At the house of the late Marguerite there were furniture, kitchen utensils, a bin, bedding and clothing in quantity, "a small silver cup", even two mirrors valued at 3 livres each.
Touissant owned 6 guns, 2 muskets, 1 calvary rifle, 1 carbine and 3 pistols...In his forge were an anvil, hammers, tongs, a hand saw, a small mold for casting " goose and Duck" lead pieces. A surprise: " Two perriers adorned with four bouches and two of iron"... a type of small cannon used on small boats to repel boarders. Some scrap
iron, 8 pairs of snowshoes, 7 pairs of moccasins, and 2 packets of fish hooks were hidden in the attic. In the cellar there was bgutter, salt, eel, cow meat and beaver skins. The appraisers even went to Toupins farm at Chateau Richer where Jean Gobeil lived. To be remembered - 3 oxen, 7 cows, 3 heifers and 3 bulls. The beautiful small
boat was icebound at the Québec quay...
Notes for Marie-Marguerite Boucher:
She was about 3 years old when she arrived in New France with her parents.
Notes for Marie Bourdon:
Before the King's Daughters, "Filles à Marier", page 73, Marie Bourdon was a single girl when she arrived in New France about 1651 before the King's Daughters.Her second husband Toussaint Topin was my 9th great grandfather with his first wife Marguerite Boucher.
Marie Bourdon was baptized 05 March 1634 in the parish of Saint-Cande-le-Viel in Rouen, Normandie, the daughter of bourgeois Louis Bourdon and Madeleine Prunier, who were married in Saint-Cande-le-Viel 25 August 1624. She is the niece of Jean Bourdon (Attorney General of Québec), who married "Filles à Marier", Jacqueline Potel.
On 09 January 1652, Marie married Jean Gloria in Québec City. She could not sign the marriage contract drawn up 27 December 1651 by notary Audouart, but her husband did, as well as her uncle Jean Bourdon. In addition to honoring the couple with his signature on the marriage contract, Marie's uncle also gave her 375 livres in dowry to bring to the marriage community.
Jean Gloria was born about 1630 in the parish of Saint-Jacques in Dieppe, Normandie, the son of merchant-bourgeois Pierre Gloria and Perrette Vaultier. The Jesuit Journal notes his presence in Québec City on 01 January 1650 as a servant at the Jesuit's residence in Québec City. Jean was general clerk in charge of the storehouses of the Compagnie des Cents Associés from 1652 to 1661, served as procurator for the Communauté des Habitants (1658) and was a royal notary from 20 September 1663 to 08 September 1664. His commission, given by the Sovereign Council on 20 September 1663, made him the first royal notary in New France. That same year, he was made a churchwarden of Notre Dame de Québec. In addition to his official duties, Jean also ran his own shop in the basse yule of Québec City.
Marie and Jean had six children. Their first child, an unnamed son, was born, given an emergency baptism, died and was buried 03 January 1653 in Québec City. Daughter Marie was baptized 15 March 1654 in Québec City, followed by Anne (17 October 1655), Pierre (09 November 1657), Marguerite (19 October 1659) and Madeleine (07 July 1662). Sadly, both Anne and Pierre died before the 1666 census. Marguerite and Madeleine both became nuns with the Hôtel Dieu de Québec, taking the names Mere du Précieux Sang and Mere de L 'Assomption, respectively. Only daughter Marie had a family, marrying Jean Toupin in 1669. She had been in the Ursuline's boarding school from 1663-1665, and Marie paid part of the tuition with a pair of scissors, two drills and a pair of slippers.
Jean became gravely ill in 1664 and ceased his duties as notary on 08 September of that year. He was most likely already afflicted with the illness that would claim his life a year later. Jean Gloria died 15 October 1665 and was buried the next day in the church of Notre Dame de Québec.
Marie continued to operate his store in the basse ville after his death. On 03 June 1669, she married Toussaint Toupin, Sieur du Sault in Québec City on the same day that her daughter Marie married Toussaint's son Jean.
Toussaint Toupin died 10 August 1676 and was buried the next day at Château-Richer. On 11 November 1680, Marie married Jean Charet at Château-Richer. Marie could not sign the marriage contract drawn up by notary Becquet on 08 November, but her husband could.
On 21 February 1695, Marie made a donation to the Hôtel Dieu de Québec, drawn up by notary Genaple.
Marie Bourdon died at Château-Richer between 15 and 29 April 1705, the dates of her will and post-mortem inventory, both drawn up by notary Lacetière.
Children of Toussaint Toupin and Marie-Marguerite Boucher are:
2 i. Unknown2 Toupin-dit-Dussault, born 20 Aug 1647 in Québec City, QC; died 21 Aug 1647 in Québec City, QC.
+ 3 ii. Jean-Baptiste Toupin-dit-Dussault, born 10 Dec 1648 in Québec City, QC; died 24 Nov 1700 in Neuville, Portneuf, QC.
+ 4 iii. Marie Toupin-dit-Dussault, born 19 Aug 1651 in Québec City, QC; died 13 Mar 1723 in Trois Rivières, St. Maurice Co., QC.
+ 5 iv. Antoine Toupin-dit-Dussault, born 05 Feb 1655 in Québec City, QC; died 01 Jun 1711 in Château Richer, Montmorency,QC.
6 v. Marguerite Toupin-dit-Dussault, born 16 Feb 1659 in Québec City, QC; died 27 Feb 1659 in Québec City, QC.
7 vi. Francois Toupin-dit-Dussault, born 10 Jun 1660 in Québec City, QC; died Aft. 22 Apr 1682 in Unknown, QC.
Children of Toussaint Toupin and Marie Bourdon are:
+ 8 i. Jeanne2 Toupin, born 09 Feb 1670 in Québec City, QC; died 18 May 1711 in Hôtel Dieu de Québec City, QC.
9 ii. Ursule-Elisabeth-Marie Toupin, born 01 May 1672 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.She married Jean Cochon/Cauchon 06 Apr 1690 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; born 02 Oct 1657 in Beaupré, QC; died 02 Jun 1694 in Hôtel Dieu de Québec City, QC.
Notes for Ursule-Elisabeth-Marie Toupin:
She had two sons that died within day after birth.Her husband died shortly after them.Two months after her husband died, she became a novice on 15 Aug 1694 and became a full nun on 15 Mar 1696 atHôtel Dieu, the Québec, City hospital.Her religious name was Sister Ste. Francoise.
10 iii. Jean-dit-Toussaint Toupin-dit-Belair, born 07 Jan 1675 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.
Generation No. 2
3.Jean-Baptiste2 Toupin-dit-Dussault (Toussaint1 Toupin, Sieur DuSault) was born 10 Dec 1648 in Québec City, QC, and died 24 Nov 1700 in Neuville, Portneuf, QC.He married (1) Marie Gloria 03 Jun 1669 in Québec City, QC, daughter of Jean Gloria and Marie Bourdon.She was born 15 Mar 1654 in Québec City, QC, and died 12 Nov 1687 in Neuville, QC.He married (2) Marie-Madeleine Mezeray 21 Jun 1688 in Neuville,QC, daughter of Jean-Baptise Mezeray and Marie-Madeleine Masse.She was born 29 Jul 1674 in Neuville, Portneuf, QC, and died 18 Oct 1714 in Québec City, QC.
Children of Jean-Baptiste Toupin-dit-Dussault and Marie-Madeleine Mezeray are:
11 i. Jean-Baptiste3 Toupin-dit-Dussault, born 27 Feb 1690 in Les Écureuils, QC; died 05 Jan 1751 in Les Écureuils, QC.He married Marie-Therese Turcot 02 Mar 1715 in Champlain, QC; born 16 Sep 1695 in Champlain, QC; died 24 Apr 1741 in Neuville, Portneuf, QC.
12 ii. Scholastique Toupin-dit-Dussault, born 22 Apr 1694 in Neuville, Portneuf, QC; died 30 Dec 1776 in La Durantaye. QC.She married (1) Pierre Mateau 11 Feb 1715 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; born 10 Apr 1677 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 15 Mar 1741 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.She married (2) Charles Gagnon 27 Jul 1744 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; born 17 May 1679 in Ste. Anne de Beaupré, Montmorency, QC; died 17 Feb 1759 in La Durantaye, QC.
4.Marie2 Toupin-dit-Dussault (Toussaint1 Toupin, Sieur DuSault) was born 19 Aug 1651 in Québec City, QC, and died 13 Mar 1723 in Trois Rivières, St. Maurice Co., QC.She married Pierre Moete, Sieur of Morasse 08 Apr 1668 in Trois Rivières, St. Maurice Co., QC.He was born about 1639 in Basse Guyenne, France, and died 24 Nov 1693 in Trois Rivières, St. Maurice Co., QC.
Notes for Pierre Moete, Sieur of Morasse:
SOURCE: The Good Regiment: The Carignan-Salieres Regiment in Canada. Jack Verney McGill Queens Univ.
Press. p 171 (Appendix B)
Pierre Moüet arrived 14-09-1665 as an ensign in la compagnie de Loubias of the Carignan-Salieres Regiment. He was granted the concession of the seigneury L'Île de Moras 29 Oct 1672. The seigneury was an island at the mouth of the Nicolet River. Pierre Sr. settled there as a farmer and died leaving his family in extreme poverty.
The seigneury was eventually sold by his son Pierre's family to their Aunt Thérèse(sister of Pierre Jr.).
Child of Marie Toupin-dit-Dussault and Pierre Moete is:
13 i. Marie-Therese3 Moete-dit-Morasse, born 14 Mar 1688 in Trois Rivières, QC.She married (1) Michel Trottier-dit-Desruisseaux-Beaubien 27 Oct 1715 in Trois Rivières Cathedral, QC; born about 1671 in Unknown, QC; died Bef. 15 Jul 1723 in Nicolet, QC.She married (2) Rene Guay 22 Jul 1728 in Cap de la Madeleine, QC; born 15 Nov 1698 in Montréal, QC.
Notes for Marie-Therese Moete-dit-Morasse:
She inherited the land at l'Île Moras from her parents.
5.Antoine2 Toupin-dit-Dussault (Toussaint1 Toupin, Sieur DuSault) was born 05 Feb 1655 in Québec City, QC, and died 01 Jun 1711 in Château Richer, Montmorency,QC.He married Marie-Louise Cloutier 24 Oct 1679 in La Visitation Notre Dame, Château Richer, Montmorency, QC (ct 17 Sep, Aubert), daughter of Jean Cloutier and Marie Martin-dit-Lescossois.She was born 15 Apr 1658 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC, and died 23 Feb 1733 in Château Richer, Montmorency,QC.
Notes for Antoine Toupin-dit-Dussault:
He is listed as being 10 in the 1666 Québec City census.He is listed as being 10 in the 1666 Quebec City census.
Children of Antoine Toupin-dit-Dussault and Marie-Louise Cloutier are:
14 i. Antoine3 Toupin, born 02 Aug 1680 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 11 Nov 1759 in Charlesbourg, QC.He married Francoise Lefebvre 03 Nov 1711 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; born 17 Aug 1688 in Charlesbourg, QC; died 14 Nov 1746 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.
15 ii. Noel Toupin, born 20 Apr 1683 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 16 Aug 1759 in Montréal, QC.He married (1) Marie-Anne David-dit-Pontife 17 Feb 1710 in Château Richer, Montmorency QC; born 07 Jun 1672 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 07 May 1711 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.He married (2) Marie-Francoise Navers 12 Apr 1712 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; born 24 Aug 1693 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 24 Feb 1779 in Hôpital Général de Montréal, QC.
16 iii. Marguerite Toupin, born 08 Jul 1685 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died Bef. 23 Mar 1728 in Unknown, QC.She married Jacques Cordeau-dit-Deslauriers 22 Aug 1702 in La Visitation Notre Dame, Château Richer, Montmorency, QC (ct 21, Jacob); born 13 Sep 1671 in Ste. Famille de l'Île d'Orléans, QC; died 21 Jan 1747 in Kamouraska, QC.
Notes for Jacques Cordeau-dit-Deslauriers:
His parents died when he was young.Nicolas DeLaunay was named as his guardian with Jean de Blois as trustee.
17 iv. Marie Toupin, born 04 Sep 1687 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.She married Joseph Berthelot-dit-Leloutre 25 Feb 1715 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; born 17 Mar 1676 in Beaupré, QC.
18 v. Francois Toupin, born 10 Jul 1689 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 16 Aug 1747 in Longue Pointe, QC.He married Jeanne Legris-dit-Lepine 21 Feb 1718 in Québec City, QC; born 08 Jun 1696 in Québec City, QC; died 10 May 1760 in Montréal, QC.
19 vi. Pierre Toupin, born 27 Jul 1691 in Québec City, QC; died 03 Aug 1691 in Québec City, QC.
20 vii. Joseph Toupin, born 20 Nov 1693 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 20 Nov 1744 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.He married Marie-Anne Legare, (Nicolas & Marie Anne Dupre) 25 Nov 1726 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; born 03 Jan 1702 in Lauzon, QC; died 19 Jan 1789 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.
21 viii. Marie-Anne Toupin, born 31 Oct 1695 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 11 Oct 1747 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.She married (1) Louis Jobidon 25 Oct 1717 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; born 31 Mar 1697 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 21 Dec 1727 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.She married (2) Jean-Jacques-Baptiste Giroux 14 Jun 1729 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; born 08 Dec 1707 in Québec City, QC; died 11 Dec 1739 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.
22 ix. Jean Toupin, born 12 Sep 1697 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 19 Jun 1716 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.
23 x. Alexandre Toupin, born 16 Jan 1701 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 04 Jan 1759 in Beauport, Montmorency, QC.He married Marie-Louise Chevalier 13 Feb 1730 in Beauport, Montmorency, QC; born 01 Apr 1710 in Beauport, Montmorency, QC; died 29 Apr 1771 in Beauport, Montmorency, QC.
8.Jeanne2 Toupin (Toussaint1) was born 09 Feb 1670 in Québec City, QC, and died 18 May 1711 in Hôtel Dieu de Québec City, QC.She married Guillaume Guyon-dit-Buisson-Dion 03 Nov 1688 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC, son of Jean Guyon and Elisabeth-Isabelle Couillard.He was born 17 Nov 1652 in Québec City, QC, and died 21 Jun 1716 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC.
Children of Jeanne Toupin and Guillaume Guyon-dit-Buisson-Dion are:
24 i. Pierre3 Guyon-dit-Buisson-Dion, born 14 Mar 1702 in Château Richer, Montmorency, QC; died 03 Jan 1773 in Montmagny, QC.He married (1) Rosalie-Marie Lavoie 16 Jul 1731 in St. Joachim, QC; born about 1704 in Unknown, QC; died 03 Mar 1748 in Montmagny, QC.He married (2) Angelique Caouette 28 Apr 1749 in Cap St. Ignace, Montmagny, QC; born 27 Apr 1704 in Cap St. Ignace, Montmagny, QC; died 13 Apr 1767 in Montmagny, QC.
25 ii. Ange Guyon-dit-DuBuisson, born about 1710 in Unknown, QC.He married Francoise Cote 13 Feb 1736 in Rimouski, QC; born 29 Apr 1704 in Baie St. Paul, Charlevoix, QC; died 31 Mar 1793 in L'Îsle Verte, Rivière du Loup, QC.
Hi, I have decided to post all my Québec pioneer ancestor at the different GenForums because a lot of individuals doing genealogy research don’t realize that their ancestors can be found as early as the 1600s.
My resources are limited because I live in Oregon. I hope that you use this information only as a guide. I welcome corrections and additions from anyone that has access to the original files.
Originally I paid a genealogy society to trace the direct lines for 6 of my 8 great grandparents. They used the books that were compiled by volunteers for each parish. Because so many individuals had the same name, I eventually found some errors in these books. Then I used Tanguay and found out that he may be about 75% right and Jette (that goes to 1730) is about 90% right. Then just as I thought that I was finished, I found PRDH (University of Montreal) and I believe that they may be 98% right and still make corrections to their records. They go up to 1799 for marriage contracts and 1850 for some deaths. Some people have the luxury of having the original records at their disposal. I do not have that and with 17,000 individuals in my data base, I can not afford to pay for copies of all the originals. At that point I confirmed every that I had with the records at PRDH. Whenever I say “about” for a birth date it means that PRDH did not find it or if it is in the 1800s, I did not look it up because of my lack of resources.
PRDH uses the most common spelling variation for the names. This makes it easier to trace the families. They do not always use the original name that appears on the contracts or birth records. That is ok with me, because many individuals before the 1900s could not sign their names and did not even care how others spelt it. As a result the same person’s name took on a variety of spellings. I also kept the “dit” (aka) names because eventually brothers from the same family, picked a different aka name.For a very small fee PRDH has all the Canadian records from 1600-1799 and some death dates up to 1850.Their records are about 18% accurate.They can be found at:
As for the pioneers, I also used Peter Gagné’s English books on the single girls that arrived in New France between 1634 & 1662 and his book on the single girls that are referred to as the King’s Daughters that arrived between 1663 & 1673. These girls were recruited and paid by the King to go to New France (Québec) to get married and colonize the area.
For the 1800-1900s I paid to prove my direct lines.My data for their extended family come from people on the web. The program that I use does not allow for baptismal dates, so if I don’t have a birth date, I use the baptismal date. The same goes for death vs. burial dates and actual wedding vs. contract dates. The newer programs have these features, but I will not be going through 18,000 records to make the changes.
Use this information as a guide only. I view genealogy as a hobby and not as pure science.As for the stories, I got them all in French on the web and I translated them for my grandchildren.I had not read or spoken French in over 40 years, so it was difficult and may not be the best translation.