My g-g-grandmother, Effy BLACKWELL,of Jasper Co., MS is partially responsible for the multiple spellings of this name.
About 1856 Effy had a daughter named Francis JOURNIGAN. We believe Harris JOURNIGAN was the father but we can't find any records of him.
Latter Effy had two boys, William Thomas (b. 1865) and Albert Galitan JOHNSTON (b. 1868). Their father was Wash JOHNSTON.
Then Effy had 3 boys and a girl with the surname JOHNIKEN. We think the father might be Coleman JOHNICAN or JOURNIGAN.
Effy could not read and write and when we find her in the census there are no men in the household.
In 1900 she is Effy JOHNIGAN.
Because of the kids names we are pretty certain we have the same Effy from census to census -- but the last name JOURNIGAN is spelled different after the JOHNSTON children are old enough to learn to spell. It became JOHNIKEN.
I have run a few web searches where every JOHNIKEN I found in the U. S. was decended from Effy. Pretty good for a lady that could not read and write.
However, I'm pretty sure at least one other line exist in NC and Florida. Sometimes it is spelled JONICAN or JOHNICAN but in MS the families using that spelling were African American or mullato.
The BLACWELLs are white, --- but Effy named one son, Burkett Lassiter JOHNIKEN and there is a L. B. Lassiter, a free person of color, in the 1850 census. Burkett Lassiter JOHNIKEN was born ca 1870 so the person in the 1850 census could be a namesake but unlikely father.
However, another one of the older boys is name Albert Galitan JOHNSTON, after Albert Galitan BROWN, a leader of the secession movement in MS. Mississippi politicians stated they were secedeing because the US government was taking property without compensation. Effy named a son after one of them.
It's all very confusing.