I assume you have 1881 census, cannot find him before 1861 I wonder if Catherine is the 2nd wife as Catherine would have been only 16 when Geoffrey was born which is a bit young (when Anthony was 39)but she would be 19 when Rupert was born and with the 4 year gap between the boys? especially as the children were born every 1.5 years after that???
1871 England Census Record
Name: Anthony Knowles Age: 47 Estimated Birth Year: abt 1824 Relation: Head Spouses's Name: Catherine Margaret Gender: Male Where born: Bolton, Lancashire, England
Registration district: Stockport Sub-registration district: Stockport First ED, institution, or vessel: 23
Household schedule number: 11 Household Members: Name Age Ann Hughes 17servant Alice Clare Knowles 4 Anthony Knowles 47 Betsey Knowles 2 Catherine Margaret Knowles 25b Northwick, Cheshire Geoffrey Knowles 9 Margrat Mabel Knowles 12 (actually 12 months not years)b. Reddish, Lanc - all other children born Manchester Ralph Percy Knowles 3 Rupert Knowles 5